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David K. Wiggins

This essay reflects on the status of kinesiology amidst the current pandemic and Black Lives Matter movement. Utilizing the metaphor coined by mathematician and physicist Freeman Dyson, I contend that the continued success of kinesiology is more plausible if we prepare more visionary birds, those with broader range and a variety of interests, to supplement the more narrowly focused frogs who currently dominate the field. Implicit in the essay is the contention that the field would benefit if it took a more interdisciplinary approach to the study of physical activity, sport, exercise, and other human movement forms as advocated by the American Kinesiology Association and individual scholars in the field. More specifically, I argue that the social sciences and humanities should be provided a more prominent place in kinesiology curriculums and serve as an academic core for all students in the field, irrespective of career aspirations and goals.

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Juleimar S.C. Amorim, Juliana L. Torres, and Sérgio V. Peixoto

This study examined isolated and combined associations of physical activity (PA) and sitting time (ST) with body mass index (BMI) among older Brazilian adults. We have analyzed baseline data of 8,177 participants aged 50 years and older from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Aging. Respondents were categorized into sufficient PA/low ST, sufficient PA/high ST, insufficient PA/low ST, or insufficient PA/high ST using the Short Version of International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regression analysis examined the associations of being underweight (BMI, <18 kg/m2), overweight (BMI, 25–29.9 kg/m2), and obese (BMI, ≥30 kg/m2) with PA and ST categories. High ST (≥165 min/day) was associated with overweight (odds ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval [1.11, 1.44]) and obesity (odds ratio, 1.43; 95% confidence interval [1.21, 1.70]). However, no association was observed between PA and BMI. Participants in the insufficient and sufficient PA/high ST categories were more likely to be obese after adjusting for sociodemographic and health condition. Our findings call for public health initiatives that consider reducing ST in older adults.

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Scott Small, Sara Khalid, Paula Dhiman, Shing Chan, Dan Jackson, Aiden Doherty, and Andrew Price

Purpose: Lowering the sampling rate of accelerometers in physical activity research can dramatically increase study monitoring periods through longer battery life; however, the effect of reduced sampling rate on activity metric validity is poorly documented. We therefore aimed to assess the effect of reduced sampling rate on measuring physical activity both overall and by specific behavior types. Methods: Healthy adults wore sets of two Axivity AX3 accelerometers on the dominant wrist and hip for 24 hr. At each location one accelerometer recorded at 25 Hz and the other at 100 Hz. Overall acceleration magnitude, time in moderate to vigorous activity, and behavioral activities were calculated and processed using both linear and nearest neighbor resampling. Correlation between acceleration magnitude and activity classifications at both sampling rates was calculated and linear regression was performed. Results: Of the 54 total participants, 45 contributed >20 hr of hip wear time and 51 contributed >20 hr of wrist wear time. Strong correlation was observed between 25- and 100-Hz sampling rates in overall activity measurement (r = .97–.99), yet consistently lower activity was observed in data collected at 25 Hz (3.1%–13.9%). Reduced sleep and light activity and increased sedentary time was classified in 25-Hz data by machine learning models. Discrepancies were greater when linear interpolation resampling was used in postprocessing. Conclusions: The 25- and 100-Hz accelerometer data are highly correlated with predictable differences, which can be accounted for in interstudy comparisons. Sampling rate and resampling methods should be consistently reported in physical activity studies, carefully considered in study design, and tailored to the outcome of interest.

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Xiaoke Chen, Xinzheng Sun, Di Gao, Dan Qiu, and Hui He

Circulatory endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play an important role in repairing damaged vascular endothelium and preventing cardiovascular diseases. The decrease in level of circulating EPCs in middle-aged and older adults can lead to an increase in cardiovascular events. Researchers have carried out several studies on the effects of aerobic exercise on circulating EPCs in middle-aged and older adults, but the results vary from one study to another. The aim of this study therefore is to systematically evaluate the effect of aerobic exercise on the basal level of circulating EPCs in middle-aged and older adults by meta-analysis. Randomized controlled trial studies on the effects of aerobic exercise on EPCs were searched for from CNKI, PubMed, EBSCO, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Embase databases. The literature was screened according to inclusion and exclusion criteria, research data were extracted, and the literature quality was evaluated by Cochrane scale. Software Review Manager (version 5.3) and Stata (version 15.0) were used for data analysis. A total of nine articles were included in this analysis, including 165 participants (40 healthy adults and 125 patients) who received exercise interventions and 162 participants (40 healthy adults and 122 patients) who served as the control, with an age range from 58 to 70 years. The meta-analysis found that long-term (≥12 weeks) aerobic exercise could improve the level of EPCs in the peripheral circulation (standardized mean differences [SMD] = 0.53, 95% confidence interval [0.30, 0.76], p < .01). The subgroup analysis found that aerobic exercise improved EPCs in healthy people better than in people with cardiovascular disease and that the intervention time needs to be over 12 weeks to have a significant impact. In conclusion, the authors suggest that middle-aged and older adults can improve their EPCs quantity by engaging in moderate-intensity aerobic exercise four to five times per week for no less than 12 weeks to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.

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Moeini Babak, Barati Majid, Heidarimoghadam Rashid, Tapak Leili, and Parsamajd Shahryar

Inadequate health literacy decreases physical activity. This study aimed to develop and examine psychometrics of physical activity health literacy in Iranian older adults. This methodological work was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 consisted of extensive studies review and qualitative study to extract and design the items. The psychometrics were measured in Phase 2 included content, faceconstruct validities, reliability, and stability. The collected data were analyzed in SPSS (version 25.0) and AMOS (version 24.0). The results of the exploratory factor analysis showed four factors— information evaluation, reading skill, perception, and decision making—and used information that explained 70.08% of the variance. The model’s fitness was supported by confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency based on Cronbach’s alpha was .89 with composite reliability >0.85. Stability was confirmed through the test–retest method and intraclass correlation coefficient (.89–1). Psychometrics of physical activity health literacy in Iranian older adults supported validity and reliability of the tool.

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Kathryn E. Wilson, Andrew Corbett, Andrew Van Horn, Diego Guevara Beltran, Jessica D. Ayers, Joe Alcock, and Athena Aktipis

Background: Physical activity (PA) mitigated psychological distress during the initial weeks of the COVID-19 pandemic, yet not much is known about whether PA had effects on stress in subsequent months. We examined the relationship between change over time in COVID-related stress and self-reported change in PA between March and July 2020. Methods: Latent growth modeling was used to examine trajectories of change in pandemic-related stress and test their association with self-reported changes in PA in an international sample (n = 679). Results: The participants reported a reduction in pandemic-related stress between April and July of 2020. Significant linear (factor mean = −0.22) and quadratic (factor mean = 0.02) changes (Ps < .001) were observed, indicating a deceleration in stress reduction over time. Linear change was related to change in PA such that individuals who became less active during the pandemic reported less stress reduction over time compared with those who maintained or increased their PA during the pandemic. Conclusions: Individuals who experienced the greatest reduction in stress over time during the pandemic were those who maintained their activity levels or became more active. Our study cannot establish a causal relationship between these variables, but the findings are consistent with other work showing that PA reduces stress.

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Miquel Martorell, Lorena Mardones, Fanny Petermann-Rocha, Maria Adela Martinez-Sanguinetti, Ana Maria Leiva-Ordoñez, Claudia Troncoso-Pantoja, Fernando Flores, Igor Cigarroa, Francisco Perez-Bravo, Natalia Ulloa, Daniel Mondaca-Rojas, Ximena Diaz-Martinez, Carlos Celis-Morales, Marcelo Villagran, and on behalf of the Epidemiology of Lifestyle and Health Outcomes in Chile Consortium

Background: Genetic variants within the FTO gene have been associated with increased adiposity and metabolic markers; however, there is limited evidence regarding the association of FTO gene variants with physical activity-related variables. The authors aimed to investigate the association of the rs17817449 single-nucleotide polymorphism of FTO with physical activity, sedentary time, and cardiorespiratory fitness in Chilean adults. Methods: A total of 409 participants from the GENADIO study were included and genotyped for the rs17817449 single-nucleotide polymorphism of FTO in this cross-sectional study. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured with ActiGraph accelerometers. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed using the Chester step test. The associations were assessed by using multivariate regression analyses. Results: No associations were found for FTO variant with physical activity levels and cardiorespiratory fitness. The risk allele (G) of the FTO was found to be associated with sedentary time in the minimally adjusted model (β = 19.7 min/d; 95% confidence interval, 4.0 to 35.5, per each copy of the risk allele; P = .006), but the association was no longer significant when body mass index was included as a confounder (P = .211). Conclusion: The rs17817449 single-nucleotide polymorphism of the FTO gene was not associated with the level of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and sedentary behaviors in Chilean adults.

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Joseph J. Murphy, Fiona Mansergh, Marie H. Murphy, Niamh Murphy, Benny Cullen, Sarah O’Brien, Stephen Finn, Grainne O’Donoghue, Niamh Barry, Shirley O’Shea, Kevin M. Leyden, Peter Smyth, Jemima Cooper, Enrique G. Bengoechea, Nick Cavill, Andrew J. Milat, Adrian E. Bauman, and Catherine B. Woods

Physical activity (PA) promotion is a complex challenge, with the Global Action Plan on Physical Activity (GAPPA) endorsing a systems approach and recommending countries assess existing areas of progress which can be strengthened. This paper reports a process facilitating a systems approach for identifying current good practice and gaps for promoting PA in Ireland. Elements of participatory action research were enabled through 3 stages: (1) aligning examples of actions from Irish policy documents (n = 3) to the GAPPA, (2) workshop with stakeholders across multiple sectors, and (3) review of outputs. Data collected through the workshop were analyzed using a deductive thematic analysis guided by the GAPPA. The policy context in Ireland aligns closely to the GAPPA with the creation of Active Systems the most common strategic objective across policy documents. Forty participants (50% male) took part in the systems approach workshop, which after revision resulted in 80 examples of good practice and 121 actions for greater impact. A pragmatic and replicable process facilitating a systems approach was adopted and showed current Irish policy and practices align with the GAPPA “good practices.” The process provides existing areas of progress which can be strengthened, as well as the policy opportunities and practice gaps.

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Liz Carlin, Maxine E. Whelan, Hayley Musson, and Emma J. Adams

Background: The benefits of physical activity for preventing and managing long-term health conditions are well established and health care professionals could promote physical activity to patients. The current study aims to evaluate the impact of the Clinical Champions Physical Activity Training Program. Methods: Health care professionals attend a one-off in-person training session delivered by a trained Clinical Champion. Attendees at the Clinical Champions Physical Activity Training Program were asked to complete a baseline survey prior to the training session and follow-up surveys 4 and 12 weeks posttraining. Results: A total of 5945 training attendees completed the baseline survey. A total of 1859 and 754 participants completed 4- and 12-week follow-up (31.3% and 12.7% response rate, respectively). Significant increases in confidence to deliver brief physical activity advice and knowledge of physical activity guidelines were reported at 12 weeks (P < .001). The perceived frequency of physical activity discussions with patients significantly increased (P < .001). Twelve weeks after training, fewer barriers in promoting physical activity were reported. Conclusions: The evaluation of the Clinical Champions Physical Activity Training Program demonstrated an increase in knowledge of physical activity guidelines, levels of confidence, and frequency of delivery of brief physical activity advice to patients. Further research is required to determine if this impact translates into changes to patients’ physical activity behavior.

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Matt Nickels, Sarabjit Mastana, Veryan Codd, Matthew Denniff, and Elizabeth Akam

It is unclear how running modality influences telomere length (TL). This single laboratory visit study compared the TL of master sprinters and endurance runners with their young counterparts. The correlation between leukocyte and buccal cell TL in athletes was also explored. Participants consisted of 11 young controls, 11 young sprinters, 12 young endurance runners, 12 middle-aged controls, 11 master sprinters, and 12 master endurance runners. Blood and buccal samples were collected and randomized for analysis of TL by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Young endurance runners displayed longer telomeres than master athletes (p < .05); however, these differences were not significant when controlled for covariates (p > .05). A positive correlation existed between leukocyte and buccal cell TL in athletes (r = .567, p < .001). In conclusion, young endurance runners possess longer telomeres than master endurance runners and sprinters, a consequence of lower body mass index and visceral fat.