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Perspectives on Inclusion in Physical Education From Faculty and Students at Three Physical Education Teacher Education Programs in Chile

Fabián Arroyo-Rojas and Samuel R. Hodge

Discourse about, and the preparation of teachers regarding, the inclusion of all students has been lacking in Latin America broadly, including Chile. The purpose of this study was to examine the perspectives of physical education teacher education (PETE) faculty members and undergraduate students on inclusion and social justice in Chile. Grounded in social constructionism, the research design of this qualitative inquiry was descriptive multiple case study. The 16 participants were PETE faculty—that is, two assistant professors and one adjunct faculty member (n = 3) and three heads of programs (n = 3)—as well as undergraduate students (n = 10) across three PETE programs in Chile. The primary data sources were 12 individual semistructured interviews with heads of the program and faculty and three focus group interviews with undergraduate students across programs. The qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis to draw on different themes capturing the perspectives on inclusion and social justice within the Chilean physical education curriculum. Findings were presented through themes and subthemes across PETE programs. Three major discussion themes are presented: (a) disability framed within a deficit model, (b) inclusion as an adapted pedagogical practice, and (c) inclusion as a rights-based model for equality of opportunities. We conclude, analytically, that a lack of critical critique of the deficit model of disability, adapted pedagogical practices alone, and sameness manifests forms of marginalization to students with disabilities in physical education.

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Physical Education Alternative Certification Programs: Learning Opportunities for Teacher Candidates

Jaehun Jung, Layne Case, Samuel W. Logan, and Joonkoo Yun

Purpose: This study investigated differences in (a) completion of teaching methods courses and (b) participation in professional development opportunities between alternatively and traditionally certified physical educators. Method: The sample included 1,850 physical educators (mean age: 42.7 years, male: 61.7%, female: 38.3%) from the 2017 to 2018 National Teacher and Principal Survey. Prevalence estimates of physical educators who (a) completed undergraduate or graduate teaching methods courses during their education and training and (b) participated in professional development were calculated. Results: The results of binary logistic regressions reveal that alternatively certified physical educators were less likely to complete various teaching methods courses before entering the teaching profession. In addition, there were no differences in participation in professional development except in instructional strategies for students with disabilities. Conclusion: Considering unprepared teachers tend to leave the profession early, alternative certification programs need to provide substantial levels of learning opportunities, including teaching methods courses.

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Utilizing Sport Education During Off-Season High School Golf Team Preparation: A Case Study

Todd Layne, Kelly Simonton, Peter Hastie, and Jamie Brunsdon

Purpose: Limited research has examined the Sport Education instructional model and its use with high school athletic teams. The purpose of this study was to see if the model could be utilized as an effective approach to preparing and training youth golf athletes in a motivating way, specifically in the off-season. Method: Participants (N = 9) were placed on teams for a total of eight practice sessions. A mixed-method analysis via survey analysis of motivational basic needs, emotions, and competencies, and focus group interviews occurred. Results: Interviews revealed that the Sport Education format enhanced enjoyment and group connection. Survey data indicated that autonomy support from instructor, enjoyment, and all three motivational needs (i.e., competence, relatedness, autonomy) trended upward. Shame, anger, and anxiety trended down. Discussion/Conclusion: The Sport Education model provides a unique opportunity for coaches to create a learning environment that is friendly, fun, and supportive of player development.

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Volume 43 (2024): Issue 2 (Apr 2024)

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A Grassroots Initiative to Engage Classroom Teachers in Increasing Physical Activity

Karie L. Orendorff, Christopher B. Merica, and Cate A. Egan

Purpose: Classroom-based physical activity (PA) provides students the opportunity to achieve PA recommendations. However, limited research has examined grassroots efforts for classroom-based PA. The purpose of this study was to share the story of a grassroots initiative to increase PA during school, titled the 150 Project. Methods: Narrative inquiry was used to draw on participants shared experiences to bring the story into existence. Individual interviews were conducted (n = 4, project developers; n = 9, elementary classroom teachers). Interview data were coded to reveal connections and relationships between the participants’ stories to form a narrative. Results: The narrative is told by explaining (a) challenge (achieve PA recommendations), (b) action steps (project design), (c) outcomes (student, teacher, and school), and (d) moral of the story (need valid data and increased advocacy for during-school PA). Discussion/Conclusion: The 150 Project successfully trained classroom teachers to increase PA and advocate for PE, but the project is unsustainable without additional support systems.

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A Survey of New York State Physical Educators’ Use of Game-Based Approaches in K–12 Physical Education

Clancy M. Seymour, Mark Garrison, Jeffrey R. Lindauer, and Stephen Harvey

Background/Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate physical educators’ self-reported use, understanding, and confidence with game-based approaches (GBAs) in their K–12 physical education programs. Method: A survey of New York State physical education professionals was conducted that yielded quantitative data on how they used game-based approaches. Data were analyzed using Observation Oriented Modeling (version 5.4.2022), a tool well suited for survey data, especially teachers’ reports of game-based lesson sequences. Results: Physical educators reported both awareness and confidence with various GBAs spending most physical education game-based lessons teaching invasion games with emphasis on the psychomotor domain. Respondents’ typical game lesson sequences did not match model GBA lesson sequences. Conclusions: Findings from this study indicate respondents do not use GBAs for their game-based lessons. Beyond teacher preparation, intentional professional development should address conceptual, pedagogical, cultural, and political obstacles, and may help practitioners become more pedagogically fluent with GBAs.

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Beliefs of German Prospective Physical Education Teachers: A Qualitative Examination Through the Lens of Teaching Quality

Sophie Engelhardt and Julia Hapke

Purpose: Prospective physical education teachers (PPETs) acquire beliefs during acculturation, which is the time before teacher education begins. Beliefs are based on shared experiences and influential in PPETs’ professional development. We examined German PPETs’ shared beliefs through the lens of teaching quality, comprising classroom management, student support, and cognitive activation. Method: Three focus group discussions were conducted, in which 13 German PPETs were instructed to work on shared lesson planning. The data were analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis. Findings: The PPETs believed that physical education should enable students’ participation in sports. Therefore, classroom management was reflected as “managing a physical education class as a prerequisite for the complexity of teaching.” Student support was reflected as “providing easy access to sports for all students.” Cognitive activation was reflected as “disregarding cognitive activation in favor of transmissive teaching.” The PPETs drew on their own physical education experiences as former students. Conclusion: Longitudinal studies focusing on cognitive activation are recommended.

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Students’ Perspectives of Social and Emotional Learning in a High School Physical Education Program

Ben Dyson, Seunghyun Baek, Donal Howley, Yongjin Lee, and Judy Fowler

Purpose: This study aimed to explore students’ perspectives and experiences of social and emotional learning (SEL) during physical education high school classes. Method: Using a case study design, focus group and individual interviews were implemented with 42 students. Based on the Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning’s SEL framework, deductive and inductive qualitative data analysis was conducted. The trustworthiness of this study was enhanced through peer debriefing process with various strategies. Result: Four themes were generated from the data analysis: Think about it more in depth, You can say how you feel, Care and support, and Different levels of buy-in. Discussion/Conclusion: Students’ SEL experiences in this study were overall aligned with the Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning’s SEL competencies and framework. This study suggests that more research is needed to better understand students’ SEL experiences holistically.

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Effects of Situated Game Teaching Through Set Plays on Badminton Tactical Knowledge, Technical Ability, and Game Performance Among Turkish Secondary School Students

Erhan Devrilmez, Weidong Li, Fatih Dervent, Mustafa Çabıtçı, and Senlin Chen

Background: The Situated Game Teaching Through Set Plays (SGTSP) model, a newly proposed curricular model, extends the previous game-based approaches by adopting the Theory of Situated Learning as a framework to focus on the relational and situational nature of the changing relations of all game parameters in a specific momentary game scenario. However, as a new game-based model, SGTSP warrants further empirical research investigations to establish its effectiveness at advancing student learning such as skill acquisition and game competence. Purpose: To examine the effects of the SGTSP curricular model on secondary school students’ tactical knowledge, technical ability, and game performance in badminton when compared with a technique-focused approach during a 10-lesson unit. Methods: A completely randomized block design with a repeated measure was used to address the research purpose. A sample of 158 sixth graders from eight classes at two Turkish middle schools (67 girls and 89 boys; M age = 12.62 ± 0.47) were assigned to either the SGTSP (n = 79 from four classes) or the technique-focused approach conditions (n = 79 from four classes) for the experiment. Assessments were conducted before and after the badminton instructional unit. The statistical models consisted of one of the four technical ability performances, components of game performance, or tactical knowledge as a dependent variable and eight independent variables: teacher, treatment, class nested within teacher and treatment, gender, skill levels, and three 2-way interactions between treatment, gender, and skill levels. A series of repeated-measure multivariate analyses of variance were conducted to analyze the data. Results: Participants in both groups improved tactical knowledge, forehand long serve, forehand clear, smash, and drop skills, and game performances from pre to post. Participants in the SGTSP condition showed significantly greater improvements ( η p 2 = .39 .96 ). Discussion and Conclusion: The findings of this study substantiated the positive effects of the SGTSP model on developing secondary school students’ badminton tactical knowledge, technical ability, and game performances in badminton compared with the traditional technique-focused approach.

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Impact of Occupational Socialization on South Korean Physical Education Teachers’ Interpretation and Delivery of the Hanaro Teaching Model

Seungsoo Baek and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith

Purpose: To determine the impact of occupational socialization on eight South Korean teachers’ interpretation and delivery of the Hanaro Teaching (HT) model. Method: Data were collected through formal interviews, film of teachers employing HT, document analysis, reflective journaling, and the critical incident technique. They were analyzed using analytic induction and constant comparison. Findings: The teachers interpreted and delivered the HT model in four different ways. These were the full and full+ versions of the model, watered down, and taking a cafeteria approach. The organizational socialization phase was key in shaping how the teachers delivered the model. The teachers’ acculturation and professional socialization were mainly supplemental. Conclusions: The fact that seven of the teachers employed HT without any formal training suggests that the model was fairly easy to learn. Specific training in undergraduate physical education teacher education, however, could lead to more teachers employing the full and full+ versions of the model.