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Isabela Roque Marçal, Bianca Fernandes, Vanessa Teixeira do Amaral, Renato Lopes Pelaquim, and Emmanuel Gomes Ciolac

We aimed to analyze the usefulness of the 6–20 rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale for prescribing and self-regulating high-intensity interval (HIIE) and moderate-intensity continuous (MICE) aerobic exercise performed in a heated swimming pool (32 °C). Fifteen older individuals (65 ± 3 years) treated for hypertension underwent a symptom-limited maximal graded exercise test to determine their heart rate at anaerobic threshold, and respiratory compensation point. On different days, participants were randomized to HIIE (walking/jogging between 11 and 17 of RPE; 25 min) and MICE (walking at 11–13 of RPE; 30 min). Heart rate during the low-intensity intervals of HIIE and MICE remained below the graded exercise test’s heart rate at anaerobic threshold (−7 ± 18 bpm/−16 ± 15 bpm) and respiratory compensation point (−18 ± 18 bpm/−30 ± 16 bpm), respectively, and maintained in the aerobic training zone during the high-intensity intervals of HIIE (+8 ± 18 bpm/−4 ± 19 bpm). The RPE scale at 15–17 is a useful tool for prescribing and self-regulating heated water-based HIIE and may have important implications for water-based exercise in older individuals with hypertension.

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Gráinne Hayes, Kieran Dowd, Ciaran MacDonncha, and Alan Donnely

Background: Multiple activity monitors are utilized for the estimation of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity in youth. Due to differing methodological approaches, results are not comparable when developing thresholds for the determination of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity. This study aimed to develop and validate count-to-activity thresholds for 1.5, 3, and 6 metabolic equivalents of task in five of the most commonly used activity monitors in adolescent research. Methods: Fifty-two participants (mean age = 16.1 [0.78] years) selected and performed activities of daily living while wearing a COSMED K4b2 and five activity monitors; ActiGraph GT1M, ActiGraph wGT3X-BT, activPAL3 micro, activPAL, and GENEActiv. Receiver-operating-characteristic analysis was used to examine the area under the curve and to define count-to-activity thresholds for the vertical axis (all monitors) and the sum of the vector magnitude (ActiGraph wGT3X-BT and activPAL3 micro) for 15 s (all monitors) and 60 s (ActiGraph monitors) epochs. Results: All developed count-to-activity thresholds demonstrated high levels of sensitivity and specificity. When cross-validated in an independent group (N = 20), high levels of sensitivity and specificity generally remained (≥73.1%, intensity and monitor dependent). Conclusions: This study provides researchers with the opportunity to analyze and cross-compare data from different studies that have not employed the same motion sensors.

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Alessandro Piras, Matthew A. Timmis, Aurelio Trofè, and Milena Raffi

We investigated gaze behavior of expert goalkeepers during the prediction of penalty kicks in different spatiotemporal constraints: penalties taken from 11 and 6 m. From 11 m, goalkeepers were more successful in predicting ball direction, with longer movement time initiation and a visual strategy with more fixations and greater saccade rates than penalties from 6 m, where they exhibited fewer fixations with higher microsaccade rates. As long as the opponent’s distance is large and time pressure low, gaze can be frequently shifted between the kicker’s body and the ball, due to the low cost of saccades. Conversely, when the objects are close, there is increased reliance on foveal and parafoveal information. In conclusion, when the spatiotemporal constraint is less severe, goalkeepers adopt a visual strategy with more fixations and small saccades. When the spatiotemporal constraint is more severe, they rely on peripheral vision to monitor kickers’ movements through the use of microsaccades.

Open access

Rodrigo Reis, Ruth F. Hunter, Leandro Garcia, and Deborah Salvo

We are experiencing a planetary tipping point with global warming, environmental degradation, and losses in biodiversity. The burdens of these changes fall disproportionately on poor and marginalized populations. Physical activity promotion strategies need to be aligned with climate action commitments, incorporating the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change scenarios in physical activity action plans. The promotion strategies must consider equity a core value and promote physical activity to the most vulnerable populations so that they are protected from the ill-health impacts of a changing climate.

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Phillip J. Hill, Melitta A. McNarry, Leanne Lester, Lawrence Foweather, Lynne M. Boddy, Stuart J. Fairclough, and Kelly A. Mackintosh

This study aimed to assess whether sex moderates the association of fundamental movement skills and health and behavioral outcomes. In 170 children (10.6 ±0.3 years; 98 girls), path analysis was used to assess the associations of fundamental movement skills (Get Skilled, Get Active) with perceived sports competence (Children and Youth—Physical Self-Perception Profile), time spent in vigorous-intensity physical activity, sedentary time, and body mass index z score. For boys, object control skill competence had a direct association with perceived sports competence (β = 0.39; 95% confidence interval, CI [0.21, 0.57]) and an indirect association with sedentary time, through perceived sports competence (β = −0.19; 95% CI [−0.09, −0.32]). No significant association was observed between fundamental movement skills and perceived sports competence for girls, although locomotor skills were found to predict vigorous-intensity physical activity (β = 0.18; 95% CI [0.08, 0.27]). Perceived sports competence was associated with sedentary time, with this being stronger for boys (β = −0.48; 95% CI [−0.64, −0.31]) than girls (β = −0.29; 95% CI [−0.39, −0.19]). The study supports a holistic approach to health-related interventions and highlights a key association of perceived sports competence and the time children spend sedentary.

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Karl M. Newell and Gareth Irwin

This paper examines the influence of task and skill level constraints on the generality of proximal–distal control for within-limb movement coordination. Analysis and synthesis of the experimental findings leads to the proposition that proximal–distal is one of several within-limb patterns of coordination, including: the reverse distal–proximal sequence, simultaneous activation of segments, and other sequence variations of this. The probability of particular patterns occurring is induced by task constraints and skill level of the individual, together with their evolving biomechanical consequences, including: open/closed chain, absorption/propulsion of force, magnitude of momentum, and accuracy/timing. We develop the theoretical perspective that classes of task constraints induce particular types of neuromechanical organization to within-arm or within-leg segment coordination. In this task constraint framework, proximal–distal within-limb organization is a particular rather than a general case for within-limb coordination. The limitations of anatomically-based accounts of directional change for within-limb organization are discussed with reference to a general functional degrees of freedom task constraint framework for movement coordination and control.

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Guilherme M. Lage, Larissa O. Faria, Natália F.A. Ambrósio, Athos M.P. Borges, and Tércio Apolinário-Souza

For over 40 years, the contextual interference effect in motor learning has been investigated. While the difference between levels of contextual interference experienced under blocked and random practice are well established, the difference in the levels of contextual interference experienced under serial and random practice is still ambiguous. Therefore, a meta-analytic review was conducted to clarify this inconsistency. We focused on one question: Do random practice and serial practice have the same effect on motor learning? ISI Web of Science, PubMed, and Scopus database were searched. Nine studies were included. The results of our meta-analyses show that serial and random practices present the same results in terms of performance in retention and transfer tests. This result is aligned to the original finding of the contextual interference effect, as well as its explanatory hypotheses. In addition, a complementary explanation in defense of the same mechanisms operating in serial and random practices is discussed. In conclusion, our results suggest that serial practice present high contextual interference.

Open access

Seyyed Mohammadreza Mousavi and Takehiro Iwatsuki

Expectancies for success and autonomy support have been shown to facilitate motor learning and enhance motor performance. The purpose of the study was to examine whether we replicated (a) enhanced expectancies and autonomy support intervention enhanced motor skill learning in children, and (b) identified the underlying psychological mechanism. Sixty children kicked soccer balls with their dominant leg to a squared area target. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the four groups: enhanced expectancies and autonomy support (EE/AS), enhanced expectancies (EE), autonomy support (AS), or control (CON) groups. Participants learning the skill were or were not provided enhanced expectation instructions by making the task success easier and provided an opportunity to choose one of the three colored balls during their practice. Two days later, they performed retention and transfer tests. Results indicated that the EE/AS group had the highest scores, with main effects of autonomy support being significant and enhanced expectancies being marginally significant for the retention test and significant for the transfer test. The EE/AS group had the highest self-efficacy and perceived choice scores. Therefore, having high expectancies for success and being autonomous were important ingredients for facilitating motor skill learning in children.

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Marcus Gottlieb, Mark Eys, James Hardy, and Alex J. Benson

Effective leadership is a collaborative effort, requiring a degree of complementarity in how people enact roles of leadership and followership. Using a novel online vignette methodology, we experimentally tested how three contextual factors influenced coaches’ responses to challenge-oriented acts of followership, as well as investigated two potential mechanisms. Coaches (N = 232) watched videos of an athlete provided unsolicited challenge-oriented feedback to a coach. Videos varied by the (a) athlete’s status, (b) presence of third-party observers, and (c) stage of the decision-making process. Following the video, we assessed coaches’ evaluations of the athlete. Challenge-oriented followership was perceived more favorably when enacted by an athlete in one-on-one (vs. in a group) and before a decision has been reached (vs. after a decision is reached). Coaches may appreciate proactivity from athletes in positions of followership, but challenge-oriented followership behaviors enacted at the wrong time and place can elicit negative reactions.