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Disability, the Media, and the Paralympic Games, 1st ed.

Joshua R. Pate

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Parent Descriptions of the Active Play Behaviors of Their Twins and Triplets With Autism

Marie Abu Itham, Serene Kerpan, Robert Balogh, and Meghann Lloyd

Children with autism engage in active play in different ways than children who are neurotypical, but their active play behaviors are not well understood. Research with twins and triplets with autism offers a unique opportunity to gain a clear picture of the play behaviors of children with autism because twins and triplets share many similarities (age, access to toys, etc.). Through semistructured interviews, this descriptive phenomenological study aimed to describe the active play behaviors of 19 twins and triplets with autism from the perspective of their parents (N = 9). The interviews revealed two main themes: (a) parents’ descriptions of active play and (b) parents’ descriptions of social play. The results reveal the diverse active and social play behaviors of twins and triplets with autism; parents described their children’s play behavior when engaging in sensory, indoor, outdoor, and organized play. These results suggest that children with autism may be meeting the definition of active play in nontraditional ways.

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Mobility and Dual Tasking in the Everyday Lives of Adults with Multiple Sclerosis: A Qualitative Exploration

Michael VanNostrand, Katie Emberley, Erin Cairns, Kristina Shanahan, and Susan L. Kasser

Objective: The purpose of the study was to understand how people with multiple sclerosis experience dual-tasking situations in their everyday lives. Methods: Focus groups involving a total of 11 individuals with multiple sclerosis (eight females and three males) participated in this qualitative inquiry. Participants were asked open-ended questions focused on the nature of and consequences around dual tasking when standing or walking. Reflexive thematic analysis was employed to examine the data. Results: Three themes were generated from the data: (a) Life Is a Dual Task, (b) The Social Divide, and (c) Sacrifices for Stability. Conclusions: This study highlights the significance and impact of dual tasking on the lived experience of adults with multiple sclerosis, furthering the need to more fully examine this phenomenon and potentially improve fall-prevention interventions and facilitate community participation.

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Results From the First Para Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Adolescents With Disabilities in the Philippines

Mary-Grace Kang, Audrey Anne Esguerra, Aila Nica Bandong, Roselle Guisihan, Frances Rom Lunar, Kristofferson Mendoza, Carlos Dominic Olegario, Yves Palad, Esmerita Rotor, and Gabriella Isabel Tablante

A comprehensive evaluation of physical activity (PA) engagement and policy implementation among Filipino children and adolescents with disabilities is vital in the promotion of an active healthy lifestyle. This is the first Para Report Card of the Philippines that presents the available evidence on the 10 commonly used PA indicators. Published and gray literature were searched for country-specific evidence on PA behaviors, physical fitness, and sources of influence. Stakeholders representing relevant national institutions, special education schools, and advocacy groups also provided input on the grades. Only Organized Sport and Government indicators had sufficient data to be graded F and B, respectively. The rest of the indicators were graded as incomplete due to the limited availability of nationally representative data. Findings of the Philippines 2022 Para Report Card on PA highlight the need to strengthen the documentation and evaluation of these indicators among Filipino children and adolescents with disabilities.

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Erratum. Global Matrix of Para Report Cards on Physical Activity of Children and Adolescents With Disabilities

Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly

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Volume 40 (2023): Issue 2 (Apr 2023)

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“We’re All the Same and We Love Football.” Experiences of Players and Facilitators Regarding a Collaborative, Inclusive Football Program Between Academy and Special Olympics Footballers

Melissa A. Fothergill, Danna Baik, Hannah M. Slater, and Pamela L. Graham

This study provides insight into an inclusive program between Special Olympics (SO) and academy football (soccer) players in the United Kingdom from the perspectives of players and facilitators. Qualitative focus groups were conducted across 30 participants (six facilitators, 14 Premier League academy players, and 10 SO players). Focus groups compared stakeholders’ experiences of participating in a season-long inclusive football program. Three overarching higher order themes were generated, which highlighted positive outcomes from taking part. SO players provided endorsement for developing friendships and improving football skills, whereas academy players cited the positive impact that SO players had on their mood and motivation. Facilitators reflected on positive player outcomes and subsequent accomplishments. Overall, the findings indicated that this shared experience had psychosocial and football-specific benefits for everyone who participated. Facilitators indicated that these benefits could transition into everyday life but noted that there needs to be further considerations for future programs.

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Evidence-Informed Recommendations for Community-Based Organizations Developing Physical Activity Information Targeting Families of Children and Youth With Disabilities

Rebecca Bassett-Gunter, Jennifer Tomasone, Amy Latimer-Cheung, Kelly Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Katerina Disimino, Victoria Larocca, Lauren Tristani, Kathleen Martin Ginis, Jennifer Leo, Leigh Vanderloo, Dave Sora, and Archie Allison

Parents of children and youth with disabilities (CYD) have expressed unique physical activity (PA) information needs. Community-based organizations (CBOs) require assistance to meet these needs. Guided by the Appraisal of Guidelines, Research and Evaluation II, this project established evidence-informed recommendations for developing PA information targeting families of CYD. This process involved a systematic scoping review to inform draft recommendations (k = 23), which were revised via a consensus meeting with researchers, knowledge users from CBOs, and families of CYD. Broader consultation with CBO knowledge users informed the final recommendations (k = 5) that fit within the following categories: (a) language and definitions, (b) program information, (c) benefits of PA, (d) barriers to PA, and (e) PA ideas and self-regulation tools. CBOs are encouraged to consider these recommendations when developing PA information for families of CYD. Future research will focus on the development of knowledge products to disseminate the recommendations to CBOs and support implementation.

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Global Matrix of Para Report Cards on Physical Activity of Children and Adolescents With Disabilities

Kwok Ng, Cindy Sit, Kelly Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Salomé Aubert, Heidi Stanish, Yeshayahu Hutzler, Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Mary-Grace Kang, José Francisco López-Gil, Eun-Young Lee, Piritta Asunta, Jurate Pozeriene, Piotr Kazimierz Urbański, Nicolas Aguilar-Farias, and John J. Reilly

This is an overview of the results from 14 countries or jurisdictions in a Global Matrix of Para Report Cards on physical activity (PA) of children and adolescents with disabilities. The methodology was based on the Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance’s Global Matrix 4.0. Data were aligned with 10 indicators (Overall PA, Organized Sport, Active Play, Active Transport, Physical Fitness, Sedentary Behavior, Family & Peers, Schools, Community & Environment, and Government) to produce Para Report Cards. Subsequently, there were 139 grades; 45% were incomplete, particularly for Active Play, Physical Fitness, and Family & Peers. Collectively, Overall PA was graded the lowest (F), with Schools and Government the highest (C). Disability-specific surveillance and research gaps in PA were apparent in 14 countries or jurisdictions around the world. More coverage of PA data in Para Report Cards is needed to serve as an advocacy tool to promote PA among children and adolescents with disabilities.

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Predictors of Physical Activity Levels in Ambulant/Semiambulant Children and Adolescents With Cerebral Palsy: A Clinical Cohort Study

Christina Esmann Fonvig, Jens Troelsen, Jan Christian Brønd, Sören Möller, and Anders Holsgaard-Larsen

Children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) show a reduced physical activity (PA) level compared with their typically developed peers. This study aimed to identify potential predictors of objectively evaluated habitual PA using data from a national clinical registry—the Cerebral Palsy Follow-Up Program (CPFP)—and proxy-reported questionnaires. Data from the CPFP database showed that female sex was associated with a lower PA level. Additional questionnaire data revealed age, popliteal angle limitation, Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument–Sports and Physical Functioning Scale score, screen time, Functional Mobility Scale score at 50 m, and fatigue as predictors. The proposed models can be used for the prediction and early detection of the PA level and consequently for the potential improvement among ambulant/semiambulant individuals with CP. Further research should investigate the predictive impact of personal, social, and environmental factors on the PA level and the gap in PA levels between girls and boys.