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Temporal Sequencing of Naturalistic Associations Between Body Satisfaction and Physical Activity: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study Among Women in Midlife With Elevated Cardiovascular Risk

Kelly A. Romano, Kristin E. Heron, and Danielle Arigo

The goal of the present study was to examine naturalistic associations between body satisfaction and physical activity (PA) among women in midlife. Women 40–60 years of age with cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension; N = 75; M age = 51.63) responded to five surveys per day for 10 days while accelerometer-derived PA measurements were collected continuously. PA parameters included cognitive determinants (PA motivation and intentions) and accelerometer-measured PA behavior (sedentary behavior, light-intensity PA, and moderate to vigorous PA). Multilevel models indicated that associations between body satisfaction and everyday PA differed across PA determinants, time frames (concurrent and prospective), and levels (momentary, daily, and person). For example, positive bidirectional associations were identified between women’s daily body satisfaction and PA motivation, whereas greater momentary light-intensity PA (but not moderate to vigorous PA) was unidirectionally associated with greater body satisfaction at a subsequent prompt. These findings provide insight into how associations between body satisfaction and PA unfold in the daily lives of women in midlife and highlight the complexities of these associations.

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Digest

Kim Gammage, Erica Bennett, Alyson Crozier, Alison Ede, Matt Hoffman, Seungmin Lee, Sascha Leisterer, Sean Locke, Desi McEwan, Kathleen Mellano, Eva Pila, and Matthew Stork

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In Memoriam: Daniel M. Landers 1942–2023

Deborah L. Feltz, Bradley Hatfield, and Jennifer L. Etnier

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Volume 45 (2023): Issue 5 (Oct 2023)

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Comparisons and Conversions: A Methodological Note and Caution for Meta-Analysis in Sport and Exercise Psychology

Andrew P. Hill

Meta-analysis is a powerful tool in sport and exercise psychology. However, it has a number of pitfalls, and some lead to ill-advised comparisons and overestimation of effects. The impetus for this research note is provided by a recent systematic review of meta-analyses that examined the correlates of sport performance and has fallen foul of some of the pitfalls. Although the systematic review potentially has great value for researchers and practitioners alike, it treats effects from correlational and intervention studies as yielding equivalent information, double-counts multiple studies, and uses an effect size for correlational studies (Cohen’s d) that provides an extreme contrast of unclear practical relevance. These issues impact interpretability, bias, and usefulness of the findings. This methodological note explains each pitfall and illustrates use of an appropriate equivalent effect size for correlational studies (Mathur and VanderWeele’s d) to help researchers avoid similar issues in future work.

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Social Supports and Barriers for Older Adults Not Participating in Group Physical Activity

Lindsay Morrison, Meghan H. McDonough, Jennifer Hewson, Ann Toohey, Cari Din, and Sarah J. Kenny

Group physical activity can provide physical and social benefits; however, social barriers or a lack of social support may affect participation. This study examined social-support needs and barriers among older adults who were not participating in group physical activities. Using interpretive description, semistructured interviews were conducted with 38 older adults (M = 70.9 years; 81.6% women). Themes were grouped into two categories. Category 1, expectations and initial impressions, consisted of the following: (a) Groups cannot meet everyone’s expectations or interests, (b) groups are intimidating to join, and (c) the need for inclusive programming. Category 2, social processes within group physical activity, consisted of (a) modeling physical activity behaviors, (b) sharing information and suggestions about physical activity opportunities, and (c) encouragement and genuine interest. Outreach to this population should aim to address these barriers and utilize these supportive behaviors to reduce feelings of intimidation and promote participation among older adults.

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Teachers’ Verbal and Nonverbal Communication, Students’ Psychological Needs, and Positive and Negative Outcomes in Physical Education

Héctor Moreno-Casado, Francisco M. Leo, Miguel A. López-Gajardo, Tomás García-Calvo, and Juan J. Pulido

Focused on physical education (PE), this study examined the association between teachers’ communication and students’ psychological needs, enjoyment/boredom, PE usefulness, and students’ grade perception. Participants were 1,000 students (572 girls; M age = 14.58 ± 0.65) from 29 Spanish secondary schools. A path model including variables measured at three times was tested: teachers’ verbal/nonverbal communication (Time 1), needs satisfaction/frustration (Time 2), and PE outcomes (Time 3). Verbal communication positively predicted needs satisfaction, which, in turn, positively predicted enjoyment, PE usefulness, and students’ grade perception and negatively predicted boredom. Verbal communication negatively predicted needs frustration, which was a positive predictor of boredom. Multigroup analysis showed that gender did not moderate the associations in the path model, whereas mediating effects were found between teachers’ communication and consequences via students’ psychological needs. Teachers should improve their communicative capacities to satisfy students’ psychological needs and promote positive PE  outcomes.

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Digest

Kim Gammage, Erica Bennett, Alyson Crozier, Alison Ede, Matt Hoffman, Seungmin Lee, Sascha Leisterer, Sean Locke, Desi McEwan, Kathleen Mellano, Eva Pila, and Matthew Stork

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Examining the Utility of Stress-, Motivation-, and Commitment-Based Perspectives of Athlete Burnout

Siobhán Woods, Simon Dunne, and Pamela Gallagher

Burnout, characterized by exhaustion, reduced accomplishment, and devaluation, can have substantial negative implications for athletes. Notably, researchers continue to examine burnout from multiple perspectives, commonly focusing on stress-, motivation-, or commitment-related factors, with limited efforts to consider these perspectives together. In contrast, this study aimed to assess the utility of these multiple perspectives and the key predictors of burnout in the same athlete sample. Data on burnout, stress, motivation, motivational climate, and sport commitment were gathered from 370 Gaelic games athletes. Separate structural equation models incorporating stress, motivation, and commitment factors as predictors of burnout dimensions were assessed. All models showed adequate fit. However, differences in effect size suggest that stress is more strongly associated with exhaustion, while commitment and motivation showed a stronger relationship with reduced accomplishment and devaluation. Evidence of significant predictors across perspectives also supports an integrated approach and may inform integration efforts and targeted intervention strategies.

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Volume 45 (2023): Issue 4 (Aug 2023)