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Open access

Kristopher I. Kapphahn, Jorge A. Banda, K. Farish Haydel, Thomas N. Robinson, and Manisha Desai

Accelerometer data are widely used in research to provide objective measurements of physical activity. Frequently, participants may remove accelerometers during their observation period resulting in missing data referred to as nonwear periods. Common approaches for handling nonwear periods include discarding data (days with insufficient hours or individuals with insufficient valid days) from analyses and single imputation (SI) methods. Purpose: This study evaluates the performance of various discard-, SI-, and multiple imputation (MI)-based approaches on the ability to accurately and precisely characterize the relationship between a summarized measure of accelerometer counts (mean counts per minute) and an outcome (body mass index). Methods: Realistic accelerometer data were simulated under various scenarios that induced nonwear. Data were analyzed using common and MI methods for handling nonwear. Bias, relative standard error, relative mean squared error, and coverage probabilities were compared across methods. Results: MI approaches were superior to commonly applied methods, with bias that ranged from −0.001 to −0.028 that was considerably lower than that of discard-based methods (ranging from −0.050 to −0.057) and SI methods (ranging from −0.061 to −0.081). We also reported substantial variation among MI strategies, with coverage probabilities ranging from .04 to .96. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate the benefit of applying MI methods over more commonly applied discard- and SI-based approaches. Additionally, we show that how you apply MI matters, where including data from previously observed acceleration measurements in the imputation model when using MI improves model performance.

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Derek Panchuk and Michael Maloney

While widely acknowledged as being important for team-sport performance, the contribution of peripheral vision is poorly understood. This study aimed to better understand the role of far peripheral vision in team sport by exploring how domain experts and novices used far peripheral vision to support decision making and action control. Expert (n = 25) and novice (n = 23) Australian football players completed a perception-only task to assess the extent of their peripheral field. Next, they completed two sport-specific variations (response and recognition) of a “no-look” pass task that required passing a ball to a teammate who appeared in their far peripheral field. In the perception-only task, novices outperformed experts. However, in the sport-specific action response and recognition tasks, experts demonstrated superior performance as they responded to the stimulus farther from central vision and more accurately. Results demonstrate expertise effects for the use of far peripheral vision in sport.

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Jeong Hyun Ahn and Jin Young Nam

Background: As the COVID-19 pandemic emerged, and social distancing increased, the physical activity (PA) of people decreased, which increased depression. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between self-reported changes in PA with the COVID-19 pandemic and major depression according to moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) status. Methods: This study included 228,457 adults and used data from the Korea Community Health Survey 2020. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between self-reported changes in PA and major depression stratified by MVPA status. Results: The percentage of participants who reported decreases in PA was 39.5% in men and 44.7% in women compared with the pre-COVID-19 pandemic period. Those who reported decreases in PA after the onset of COVID-19 had major depression (men odds ratio = 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.15–1.43 and women odds ratio = 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.25–1.46). Women who were moderately or vigorously physically active had higher odds of major depression when they reported decreases in PA (odds ratio = 1.31; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–1.62). Conclusions: People who reported decreases in PA were associated with major depression compared with the pre-COVID-19 pandemic period. Based on this, the government should encourage exercise to reduce major depression and provide guidelines for PA at home or outdoors.

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Katja M. Pollak, Lea Boecker, Chris Englert, and David D. Loschelder

Sport injury-related growth (SIRG) describes the possibility for athletes to benefit psychologically from an injury. The present, preregistered online study examined an international sample of 335 athletes with impressive athletic biographies who sustained a severe sport-related injury. Expanding the extant literature, we empirically contrasted numerous psychological, situational, and demographic predictors of perceived SIRG—specifically, athletes’ optimism, coping style, self-efficacy, athletic identity, social support, need satisfaction, and injury centrality. Our data first provide empirical evidence for perceived SIRG, even when statistically controlling for a potential social-desirability bias in athletes’ responses. In addition, frequentist and Bayesian regression analyses showed that several psychological variables predicted perceived SIRG—particularly athletes’ informational social support, positive reframing, optimism, and injury centrality. Finally, post hoc mediation analyses showed how these psychological variables account for different levels of perceived SIRG as a function of demographic variables. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed, along with directions for future research.

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Kacie V. Lanier, Chad M. Killian, Kathryn Wilson, and Rebecca Ellis

The purpose of this review was to identify and summarize research that has been conducted on the potential impact of physical education (PE) on students’ feelings of anxiety, depression, and stress. This review followed the PRISMA Extension for Scoping Reviews guidelines. Twenty-seven articles were identified from four databases: Academic Search Complete, APA PsycInfo, ERIC, and SPORTDiscus. Key findings indicated caring, task-involved climates were more likely to be related to reduce feelings of anxiety, depression, and stress, while ego-involving climates were related to heightened symptoms of mental distress. This review demonstrated that participation in PE had an unclear relationship with students’ mental health. To improve the understanding of the relationship and potential impact of PE on students’ mental health, future researchers should apply more rigorous methods to account for environmental factors of the school, program characteristics, social influences, physical activity intensity, and the quality of PE programs.

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Tatiana Perrino, Ahnalee M. Brincks, Yannine Estrada, Sarah E. Messiah, and Guillermo Prado

Background: Sedentary behaviors, including screen-based activities, are associated with obesity, cardiovascular, and mental health risks. In the US, minority and socioeconomically disadvantaged youth engage in substantial sedentariness, requiring targeted interventions. Familias Unidas for Health and Wellness (FUHW) is a family intervention to reduce risks among Hispanic youth with overweight and obesity. Analyses examined (1) FUHW’s impact on parent and adolescent screen-based sedentary behavior and (2) differential intervention effects by adolescent gender, internalizing symptoms, and body mass index. Methods: A total of 280 overweight/obese Hispanic middle schoolers and parents were randomized to FUHW or control and assessed at baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months between 2015 and 2019. Results: Linear growth models showed that exposure to FUHW was not associated with parent sedentary behavior over time (b = −0.11, P = .32) but was associated with decreases in adolescent sedentary behavior (b = −0.27, P = .03). Neither gender nor internalizing symptoms moderated intervention effects, but there were differential effects by body mass index. Compared to controls, FUHW showed significant decreases in sedentary behavior among overweight (b = −0.85, P < .01) and obese (b = −0.79, P < .01) youth but not severely obese youth. Conclusions: FUHW reduced youth screen-based sedentary behavior. Youth with severe obesity require additional intervention.

Open access

Robert C. van de Graaf, Leonard Hofstra, and Erik J.A. Scherder

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Wendy E. Ellis, Sarah Talebi, Tara M. Dumas, and Lindsey Forbes

The outbreak of the COVID-19 virus dramatically changed daily life and created many obstacles for adolescents to engage in physical activity (PA). This study tracked rates of self-reported PA and examined its impact on adjustment among adolescents during the first 14 months of the pandemic. Canadian adolescents (N = 1068, 14–18 y, meanage = 16.95 y) reported on their frequency of PA, context of activity, and adjustment across 4 time points (April 2020 to June 2021). In line with our hypothesis, higher average levels of vigorous PA across the pandemic predicted less anxiety and depression and higher self-esteem at our study’s end. Vigorous PA also buffered the relationships COVID-19 stress had with anxiety and self-esteem. The results further support recommendations for PA throughout the pandemic and while dealing with lockdown situations.

Open access

Shiho Amagasa, Shigeru Inoue, Ai Shibata, Kaori Ishii, Sayaka Kurosawa, Neville Owen, and Koichiro Oka

Background: Differences in accelerometer-measured sedentary behavior and different physical activity (PA) intensities between men and women have been poorly described. The authors examined gender differences in time-use activity composition and total volume of PA. Methods: A cross-sectional mail survey was conducted from 2013 to 2015 with a randomized sample of 6000 middle-aged (40–64 y) community-dwelling Japanese adults living in urban and regional cities. Participants wore Active style Pro HJA-350IT on their waist for 7 consecutive days. Gender differences in activity time use was examined using compositional data analysis to control for time spent in all activity measures. Results: In total, 757 participants (303 men, 52.3 [7.1] y) with valid data were included in the analysis. Women spent on average 12.6% less time in sedentary behavior and 23.4% more time in light-intensity PA than men, whereas no significant difference was found for moderate to vigorous PA. Women accumulated a significantly greater volume of PA than men (17.8 vs 15.0 metabolic equivalent of task h/d). Conclusions: Japanese middle-aged women showed higher levels of PA than men because they spent more time in light-intensity PA. Given the health benefits of light-intensity PA, evaluating only moderate to vigorous PA may lead to an underestimation of women’s participation in PA.