Background: Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) frequently have difficulties performing gross motor skills such as the overarm throw. Our study examines the differences in both qualitative and quantitative characteristics of overarm throwing for accuracy between typically developing (TD) and children with DCD. Methods: A total of 74 children (36 females/38 males) aged between 7 and 11 years, participated in this study. The authors used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children—second edition to assess motor impairment. In total, 37 (50%) met the criteria for DCD. Each participant completed 10 overarm throws for accuracy at a target. The authors assessed movement quality using the component approach () and quantity using target accuracy. Results: The analyses revealed significantly lower throwing accuracy in DCD versus TD children. Children with DCD also demonstrated fewer component combinations and lower developmental levels than their TD peers. Finally, product scores tracked with process scores. Discussion: Both qualitative and quantitative measures clearly showed that children with DCD are at a disadvantage in controlling a ball during overarm throwing. They used stability profiles that limited coordination variability. TD participants performed more combinations of higher developmental levels to achieve more accurate throws, suggesting they controlled variability to optimize the accuracy of their throws.
Nadja Schott and Nancy Getchell
Wendell C. Taylor
The study of sedentary behaviors requires taxonomies (classification schemes) to standardize data collection, measurements, and outcomes. Three taxonomies of sedentary behaviors have been identified, but none address an important challenge in sedentary behavior research, which is to distinguish between beneficial and detrimental health effects of various sedentary behaviors. Some sedentary behaviors (e.g., reading) are associated with positive health outcomes, whereas other sedentary behaviors (e.g., television viewing) are associated with adverse health outcomes. To address directly this complexity and present a different conception and understanding of discrepant findings related to health outcomes, a new taxonomy is needed. The development of the new taxonomy is guided by analysis of literature and selection of a relevant and informative behavioral sciences theoretical framework (i.e., self-determination theory). Because older adults are an increasing percentage of the population and report a high prevalence of sedentary behaviors, the new taxonomy was designed for older adults with potential application to all age groups. Taylor’s taxonomy of sedentary behaviors is parsimonious with four domains: social interaction (i.e., not solitary, companionship, interacting, and connecting with others); novelty (i.e., refreshingly new, unusual, or different); choice (i.e., volition, preferred option or alternative, the power, freedom, or decision to choose); and cognition (i.e., mentally stimulating and engaging).
Paige G. Brooker, Mary E. Jung, Dominic Kelly-Bowers, Veronica Morlotti, Sjaan R. Gomersall, Neil A. King, and Michael D. Leveritt
Background: To improve compliance and adherence to exercise, the concept of temporal consistency has been proposed. Before- and after-work are periods when most working adults may reasonably incorporate exercise into their schedule. However, it is unknown if there is an association between the time-of-day that exercise is performed and overall physical activity levels. Methods: Activity was assessed over 1 week in a sample of 69 active adults (n = 41 females; mean age = 34.9 [12.3] y). At the end of the study, participants completed an interviewer-assisted questionnaire detailing their motivation to exercise and their exercise time-of-day preferences. Results: Participants were classified as “temporally consistent” (n = 37) or “temporally inconsistent” (n = 32) exercisers based on their accelerometry data. The “temporally consistent” group was further analyzed to compare exercise volume between “morning-exercisers” (n = 16) and “evening-exercisers” (n = 21). “Morning-exercisers” performed a greater volume of exercise than “evening-exercisers” (419  vs 330  min by self-report; 368  vs 325  min actigraph-derived moderate to vigorous physical activity, respectively). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that active individuals use a mixture of temporal patterns to meet PA guidelines. Time-of-day of exercise should be reported in intervention studies so the relationship between exercise time-of-day, exercise behavior, and associated outcomes can be better understood.
Angie L. Cradock, David Buchner, Hatidza Zaganjor, John V. Thomas, James F. Sallis, Kenneth Rose, Leslie Meehan, Megan Lawson, René Lavinghouze, Mark Fenton, Heather M. Devlin, Susan A. Carlson, Torsha Bhattacharya, and Janet E. Fulton
Background: Built environment approaches to promoting physical activity can provide economic value to communities. How best to assess this value is uncertain. This study engaged experts to identify a set of key economic indicators useful for evaluation, research, and public health practice. Methods: Using a modified Delphi process, a multidisciplinary group of experts participated in (1) one of 5 discussion groups (n = 21 experts), (2) a 2-day facilitated workshop (n = 19 experts), and/or (3) online surveys (n = 16 experts). Results: Experts identified 73 economic indicators, then used a 5-point scale to rate them on 3 properties: measurement quality, feasibility of use by a community, and influence on community decision making. Twenty-four indicators were highly rated (≥3.9 on all properties). The 10 highest-rated “key” indicators were walkability score, residential vacancy rate, housing affordability, property tax revenue, retail sales per square foot, number of small businesses, vehicle miles traveled per capita, employment, air quality, and life expectancy. Conclusion: This study identified key economic indicators that could characterize the economic value of built environment approaches to promoting physical activity. Additional work could demonstrate the validity, feasibility, and usefulness of these key indicators, in particular to inform decisions about community design.
Emily Budzynski-Seymour, Karen Milton, Hayley Mills, Matthew Wade, Charles Foster, Dane Vishnubala, Beelin Baxter, Chloë Williamson, and James Steele
Background: To support the strategy development for communication of the updated physical activity (PA) guidelines, the UK Chief Medical Officers’ Expert Panel for Communication was created. Methods: To help inform this process, a rapid review was performed to identify and describe how other nations are communicating their PA guidelines and PA generally. Elements of the health-enhancing physical activity policy audit tool created by the World Health Organization were used to investigate all 195 countries. Results: Seventy-seven countries had their own guidelines; 53 used the World Health Organization guidelines, and for 65 countries, no guidelines could be found. For the communication, 27 countries used infographics; 56 had government policies/documents, and 11 used a mass media campaign. Only 6 of these had been evaluated. Although many countries used infographics, there were no associated evaluations. As such, any future communication strategies should incorporate an evaluation. Mass media campaigns had the strongest evidence base, proving to be an effective strategy, particularly when incorporating aspects of social marketing. Conclusion: This review provides an insight into strategies countries worldwide have taken to communicate PA guidelines and PA promotion. These should be carefully considered when deciding how best to communicate and promote PA guidelines.
Li Yi, Tyler B. Mason, Chih-Hsiang Yang, Daniel Chu, and Genevieve F. Dunton
Background: Cross-sectional studies have shown positive associations between neighborhood park access and children’s physical activity (PA); however, research that examines the relationship longitudinally is lacking. This study investigates how neighborhood park access affects the longitudinal trajectory of PA in 192 children across 3 years. Methods: Accelerometer-assessed PA data of children (N = 202) were collected across 6 semi-annual waves (7 d each) between 2014 and 2018. Geographical information systems was used to measure neighborhood park access (ie, coverage, density, and proximity) at baseline. Mixed-effects models examined the associations of park access with children’s baseline and trajectory of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) minutes across 3 years and whether the associations differed by sex or weekends versus weekdays. Results: Higher neighborhood park density, coverage, and proximity were positively associated with children’s baseline MVPA minutes per day. Longitudinally, higher park coverage was associated with smaller decreases in children’s MVPA minutes per day, but only during weekends. Park density and proximity were not associated with change in MVPA minutes per day. The above associations did not differ by sex. Conclusions: Having access to more neighborhood parklands protected against age-related declines in children’s PA. These findings suggest that neighborhood park coverage should be considered by urban planners when evaluating the health impacts of their policies.
David I. Anderson and Richard E.A. van Emmerik
This special issue of Kinesiology Review celebrates the 40th anniversary of the publication of George Brooks’s Perspectives on the Academic Discipline of Physical Education: A Tribute to G. Lawrence Rarick (1981). Written by many of the luminaries within kinesiology, the papers in this special issue highlight the tremendous growth of knowledge that has occurred in the subdisciplines of kinesiology over the last 40 years and the breadth of contexts in which new knowledge is now being applied. Kinesiology has rapidly become an influential discipline, and its breadth, depth, and influence continue to grow. Though not without challenges, there is much to be optimistic about concerning kinesiology’s future.
Melinda A. Solmon
Scholarship related to physical education and sport pedagogy is rigorous and should be central to the academic discipline of kinesiology. The goal of this article is to situate physical education and sport pedagogy as an applied field in kinesiology, grounded in the assumption that physical education, as the professional or technical application of the broader academic discipline, is of critical importance to the success of kinesiology. A brief overview of the history of research on teaching physical education is followed by an overview of the streams of research that have evolved. Major tenets of research on effective teaching and curricular reform are discussed. The status of physical education teacher education and school physical education programs is considered, and a rationale for a broader view of pedagogy that has the potential not only to promote physical education and sport pedagogy but also to enrich the academic discipline is offered.