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Jenna Morogiello, Rebekah Roessler, and Maddison Flowers

Campus recreation is an underserved population lacking specific medical standards, access to on-site medical personnel, and a universal injury surveillance system. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively examine injury epidemiology within a campus recreation center across 4 years. A total of 1,680 injuries were analyzed from one U.S. university with the greatest number of injuries occurring in intramural sports, informal recreation, and club sports, respectively. Of all injuries reported, 73% were musculoskeletal in nature and 9% were from concussions. As most injuries fall outside the scope of basic first aid, on-site medical services should be considered for all campus recreation settings.

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Alessandro Piras and Milena Raffi

In many daily and sport situations, people have to simultaneously perceive and process multiple objects and scenes in a short amount of time. A wrong decision may lead to a disadvantage for a team or for a single athlete, and during daily life (i.e., driving, surgery), it could have more dangerous consequences. Considering the results of different studies, the ability to distribute visual attention depends on different levels of expertise and environment-related constraints. This article is a narrative review of the current scientific evidence in the field of eye movements in sports, focusing on the role of microsaccades in sporting task situations. Over the past 10 years, microsaccades have become one of the most increasing areas of research in visual and oculomotor studies and even in the area of sport science. Here, we review the latest findings and discuss the relationships between microsaccades and attention, perception, and action in sports.

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Fırat Tan, Hande Guney-Deniz, Gulcan Harput, Burak Ulusoy, Gürhan Dönmez, John Nyland, and Mahmut N. Doral

Context: The study purpose was to compare the ankle muscle activation and dynamic ankle joint stability of subjects who underwent endoscopy-assisted Achilles tendon repair (ATR; at ≥ 2 y postsurgery) with age, gender, and activity level-matched healthy control group subjects. Design: Prospective, cross-sectional study. All functional tests were performed on the involved ankle of the ATR group, and at the matched side of healthy age, gender, and activity-level control group subjects. Methods: Fifteen men in each group were evaluated for medial and lateral gastrocnemius, soleus, tibialis anterior, and peroneus longus muscle activation during modified star excursion balance test and heel-rise test performance. The weight-bearing lunge test (ankle dorsiflexion) and heel-rise test distance (ankle plantar flexion) also determined weight-bearing, active ankle mobility magnitudes. The Achilles Tendon Total Rupture Score and Foot and Ankle Outcome Score provided patient-reported outcome perceptions specific to Achilles tendon rupture and comprehensive foot and ankle symptoms and function, respectively. Results: Medial (P = .005) and lateral (P = .012) gastrocnemius displayed greater activation amplitudes in the ATR group during the star excursion balance test, and peroneus longus displayed greater activation amplitudes during the heel-rise test (P = .006). The star excursion balance test reach distance was comparable between groups. Active weight-bearing ankle plantar flexion (heel-rise test) and dorsiflexion (weight-bearing lunge test) mobility magnitudes were lower in the ATR group. Conclusions: Subjects who underwent endoscopy-assisted percutaneous ATR had reduced active weight-bearing ankle dorsiflexion and plantar flexion mobility magnitudes and greater gastrocnemius and peroneus longus neuromuscular activation when performing the same tasks as healthy control group subjects. As surgical approaches evolve to less invasive, soft tissue preserving methods with less tissue morbidity and faster healing, rehabilitation approaches may likewise need to evolve. Level of Evidence: Level III.

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Hallie D. Sayre and Tom G. Bowman

A concussed 19-year-old female midfielder on an National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division III soccer team reported to the athletic training clinic complaining of a headache that began 4 days previously during a game where she headed several long punts. Despite delayed reporting, the patient returned to full participation without complication 13 days after her injury. The biomechanical data for the impacts she received on the day of injury were much lower than those presented in the literature as causing concussion for male athletes. Therefore, impact magnitude should not be used as an indicator for injury, as smaller, seemingly insignificant impacts can cause concussion.

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Masumeh Hessam, Koroush Fathalipour, Amin Behdarvandan, and Shahin Goharpey

Context: Core stability training has been recommended as a vital element in improving movement’s pattern and athletic performance. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of 12-week McGill core stability training on movement patterns, shooting accuracy, and throwing performance. Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting: University research laboratory. Methods: Forty male basketball players were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The experimental group completed 12-week McGill core stability training, while the control group completed routine exercise training. Patterns of functional movements was measured through functional movement screen (FMS), shooting accuracy measured by static 3-point shooting (S3P) and dynamic 60-second 3-point shooting test, and throwing performance measured by Functional Throwing Performance Index. Results: Comparison revealed that regardless of received training, after 12 weeks both groups showed significant improvement in all outcome measures. However, experimental group had significantly higher post test scores in FMS (P = .02), S3P (P = .007), and dynamic 60-second 3-point shooting test (P = .01). For Functional Throwing Performance Index, there was no group differences (P = .96). The results of follow-up assessments showed for all measurements including FMS (P = .03), S3P (P = .004), dynamic 60-second 3-point shooting test (P < .001), and Functional Throwing Performance Index (P = .005); experimental group had higher scores than the control group. Conclusions: According to the results, implementing McGill core stability training in basketball routine training would be advisable since significant improvement can be obtained in the measured parameters.

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Courtney N. Copeland, Emily A. Hall, and Gary W. Cohen

Clinical Scenario: With the enforcement of COVID-19 lockdown restrictions, sports teams worldwide were required to make drastic adjustments to their training regimen. This prolonged sport suspension resulted in a significant decrease in off-season and preseason training periods. Clinical Question: Are professional athletes who experienced a sport suspension during the COVID-19 pandemic at a higher risk of injury once they return to competition compared with pre-COVID-19 seasons? Summary of Key Findings: The literature was searched for articles examining the effects of COVID-19 sport suspension on athletic injury rates in elite athletes. A total of 240 articles were retrieved, and after exclusion criteria and removal of duplicates, four retrospective cohort studies remained. An increase in injury rates across studies after their sport suspension compared with pre-COVID-19 seasons was found. Clinical Bottom Line: The extended suspension from physical activity increased the risk of injury as players returned to sport training post-COVID-19 restrictions. While these studies demonstrated the effects on elite-level athletes, prolonged sport suspension may impact different patient populations. Strength of Recommendation: Based on the Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy Scale, this critically appraised topic received a B grade for consistent but limited-quality patient-oriented evidence, with a low number of articles included.

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Catherine E. Rogerson, Bradley C. Jackson, Katherine M. Breedlove, and Thomas G. Bowman

Considering the frequency and magnitude of head impacts occurring during sport participation is important to guide prevention initiatives. Our purpose was to compare magnitude and frequency of lacrosse players’ head impacts based on anticipation level and impact activity. Lacrosse athletes (16 men, 15 women) wore xPatch sensors during games and practices that measured impact magnitude (linear and rotational accelerations) and frequency of video verified head impacts. The interaction between impact activity and preparedness was not significant, multivariate: F(8, 1,730) = ;1.03, p = ;.41, η2 = ;.01. Having a detailed understanding of the characteristics of head impacts could allow for focused interventions to reduce injury risk.

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J.C. Andersen and Heather VanOpdorp

Focused Clinical Question: In adult patients with persistent low back pain, what relationship do social determinants of health have on pain frequency or severity? Bottom Line: This systematic review identified several particular social risk factors (including education status, socioeconomic status, and occupational factors) that are consistently associated with adverse low back pain outcomes. In addition, the analysis of the population-representative (cross-sectional) studies demonstrated support for important associations between specific social determinants of health, such as low socioeconomic status/income status and employment status and chronic low back pain prevalence.

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Zeinab Tohidirad, Fatemeh Ehsani, Rasool Bagheri, and Shapour Jaberzadeh

Context: In athletes, postural control impairment and knee muscle dysfunction are the most common disorders following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Because of functional changes in the motor cortex following ACL injury, physiotherapy (PT) is not enough for treatment and using neuromodulators, such as trans-cranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may be necessary. The present study focused on the effects of anodal tDCS (a-tDCS) over the primary motor cortex (M1) concurrent with PT on postural control and muscular performance in the athletes with ACL injury. Design: In this study, 34 athletes with ACL injury were randomly assigned in 2 groups of intervention group (active M1 a-tDCS concurrent with PT, n = 16) and control group (sham M1 a-tDCS concurrent with PT, n = 16). Methods: The participants of all groups received 20-minute 2 mA M1 a-tDCS with PT during 10 sessions, while tDCS was turned off after 30 seconds in the sham group. Before, immediately following, and 1 month after the interventions, the center of pressure and the average of power of flexor and extensor muscles at 2 velocities of 30°/s and 60°/s were measured by force plate and isokinetic devices, respectively. Results: One month after treatment, the displacement of center of pressure was decreased in the intervention group (P < .05), while there were no changes in the control group. Y-axis of center of pressure decreased in the intervention group relative to the control group, although average of power of flexor and extensor muscles increased immediately in both groups, but the rise in the intervention group was larger than that in the control group (P < .05). Conclusion: The findings indicated that M1 a-tDCS can induce the efficacy of PT, which has a lasting effect on the improvement of the postural control in athletes with ACL injury.

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Linjing Jiang, Satoshi Kasahara, Tomoya Ishida, Yuting Wei, Ami Chiba, Mina Samukawa, and Harukazu Tohyama

It is well-known that multitasking impairs the performance of one or both of the concomitant ongoing tasks. Previous studies have mainly focused on how a secondary task can compromise visual or auditory information processing. However, despite dual tasking being critical to motor performance, the effects of dual-task performance on proprioceptive information processing have not been studied yet. The purpose of the present study was, therefore, to investigate whether sensorimotor task performance would be affected by the dual task and if so, in which phase of the sensorimotor task performance would this negative effect occur. The kinematic variables of passive and active knee movements elicited by the leg drop test were analyzed. Thirteen young adults participated in the study. The dual task consisted of performing serial subtractions. The results showed that the dual task increased both the reaction time to counteract passive knee–joint movements in the leg drop test and the threshold to detect those movements. The dual task did not affect the speed and time during the active knee movement and the absolute angle error between the final and the target knee angles. Furthermore, the results showed that the time to complete the sensorimotor task was prolonged in dual tasking. Our findings suggest that dual tasking reduces motor performance due to slowing down proprioceptive information processing without affecting movement execution.