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The Relationship Between Coping, Neurocognitive Performance, and Concussion Symptoms in High School and Collegiate Athletes

Tracey Covassin, Bryan Crutcher, R.J. Elbin, Scott Burkhart, and Anthony Kontos

The present study explored the relationship of neurocognitive performance and symptoms to coping responses at 3 and 8 days postconcussion. A total of 104 concussed athletes (M = 16.41, SD = 2.19 years) completed the Immediate Post Concussion Assessment Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) at baseline and the ImPACT and Brief Cope inventory at 3 and 8 days postconcussion. Concussed athletes reported more frequent use of selfdistraction, behavioral disengagement, religion, and self-blame 3 days postconcussion compared with 8 days. Concussed athletes reported more use of avoidance coping at 3 days than 8 days (Wilks’s Lambda =.95, F [1, 100] =4.71, p = .032, η2=.046) post-injury. Total symptoms were also a significant (p = .001) predictor of avoidance coping 3 days postconcussion and decreased visual memory was associated with increased avoidance coping (p = .03) 8 days post-injury. Time since injury likely impacts neurocognitive performance, symptomology, and coping. Clinicians should be aware of higher reported symptoms early and lingering visual memory deficits 1-week post-injury.

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The Role of Athletic Identity and Passion in Predicting Burnout in Adolescent Female Athletes

Eric M. Martin and Thelma S. Horn

This study examined whether adolescent athletes’ levels of sport burnout would be predicted by their level and type of both passion and athletic identity. Female high-school-aged athletes (N = 186) completed a series of questionnaires to measure study variables. The results of three hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that athletes’ levels of harmonious passion served as negative predictors for all three dimensions of burnout, while obsessive passion positively predicted scores only on the exhaustion subscale. In addition, the subdimensions of athletic identity contributed a unique amount to the prediction of some aspects of burnout. These results indicate that both passion and athletic identity are important correlates or predictors of burnout levels, with harmonious passion offering the most protective effects.

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Volume 27 (2013): Issue 4 (Dec 2013)

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Tough Love for Underserved Youth: A Comparison of More and Less Effective Coaching

M. Ryan Flett, Daniel Gould, Katherine R. Griffes, and Larry Lauer

The following study explored coaching behaviors and youth coaches’ justifications for their actions by comparing more effective and less effective coaches from an underserved setting. Reasons for their coaching behaviors were also explored. In-depth interviews and ethnographic observations were conducted with 12 coaches from 6 different youth sports. Support for each theme from the analysis was compared between the 6 more effective and 6 less effective coaches. Less effective coaches tried to create a sense of family within the team, but used very negative, militaristic coaching strategies that were not developmentally appropriate. Less effective coaches justified the negative approach because of the perceived dangers in the inner city and attempted to toughen their players through harsher methods. More effective coaches challenged players while being supportive, attempted to develop close relationships along with a positive team climate, and promoted autonomy and the transfer of life skills from sport to life. More effective coaches appeared to be more open to coach training and others’ ideas—they could be described as lifelong learners. The results from this study not only reveal how more and less effective coaches differ, but provide possible insight as to why they differ. The study provides unique insights for researchers and coaching educators interested in particularly underserved settings and in developing less effective coaches.

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Volume 27 (2013): Issue 3 (Sep 2013)

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Alfred W. Hubbard and the Sport Psychology Laboratory at the University of Illinois, 1950-1970

Alan S. Kornspan

Although most history of sport psychology literature provides information about Coleman Griffith, little is known about Griffith’s activities related to the discipline after 1940. Thus, the purpose of the present paper is to explain Griffith’s influence on the reinstitution of the Sport Psychology Laboratory at the University of Illinois in 1951. In addition, the work of the Sport Psychology Laboratory at the University of Illinois under the direction of Alfred W. Hubbard is documented. Specifically, this manuscript provides information about sport psychology at the University of Illinois from 1950 until 1970.

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Athletes’ Perceptions of Role Acceptance in Interdependent Sport Teams

Alex J. Benson, Mark Eys, Mark Surya, Kimberley Dawson, and Margaret Schneider

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The Existence of Sport Psychology Services Among NCAA Division I FBS University Athletic Departments and Counseling Centers

Eric W. Hayden, Alan S. Kornspan, Zachary T. Bruback, Michael C. Parent, and Matthew Rodgers

One hundred twenty university counseling centers and athletic-department websites were viewed and analyzed for the provision of sport psychology services specifically to NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association) Division I Football Bowl Championship Series (FBS) student athletes. Using content-analysis methodology, the present research identified a fair number of university athletic departments (n = 29) and university counseling centers (n = 6) that provided specific sport psychology services. In addition, most athletic departments and counseling centers that provided sport psychology services had one individual on staff who was listed as the service provider. Results of the study are discussed in relation to providing a current understanding of the extent to which sport psychology is presently being provided to NCAA Division I FBS university student athletes. Future qualitative research is recommended to examine the work of professionals providing sport psychology services in athletic departments and counseling centers to better understand the precise nature of the services provided.

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Getting Them on the Same Page: A Method to Study the Consistency of Coaches’ and Athletes’ Situation Understanding During Training Sessions and Competitions

Anne-Claire Macquet

This article presents a method for studying the consistency of coaches’ and athletes’ situation understanding. Three elite athletes and their coach were video recorded during winter training session, international summer competition, and training session following competition. Postperformance self-confrontation interviews were conducted separately with each participant, who was asked to describe his/her activity in relation to the events observed. Interview data were used to characterize compatible (i.e., similar or the same) information between coach and athlete and modes of compatibility. Results showed compatible situation understanding was based on five information categories: (a) technical elements, (b) athlete’s psychological states, (c) organization and safety, (d) performance, and (e) athlete’s experience. Results also showed whether coaches’ and athletes’ information were not compatible, compatible, or mutually compatible. The method used and specific findings are discussed in relation to the analysis of consistency of coaches’ and athletes’ situation understanding from larger samples of participants.

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NCAA Division I Coaches’ Perceptions and Preferred Use of Sport Psychology Services: A Qualitative Perspective

Rebecca A. Zakrajsek, Jesse A. Steinfeldt, Kimberly J. Bodey, Scott B. Martin, and Sam J. Zizzi

Although there appears to be greater acceptance and use of sport psychology (SP), fully integrating SP consultants and services into college athletic programs has yet to occur in most institutions. Decisions to initiate, continue, or terminate SP services are often made by coaches. Therefore, college coaches with access to services were interviewed to explore their beliefs and expectations about SP service use and how an SP consultant could work effectively with them and their athletes. Using consensual qualitative research methods, three domains in coaches’ perceptions of SP consultants were revealed: who they are, what they do, and how they do it. Findings illustrate the importance of being “on the same page” with coaches, developing self-reliant athletes, and making an impact while remaining in a supporting role.