This study examined on-field antisocial sports behaviors among 274 American football players in the United States. Results indicated that moral atmosphere (i.e., teammate, coach influence) and conformity to masculine norms were significantly related to participants’ moral behavior on the field (i.e., intimidate, risk injury, cheat, intentionally injure opponents). In other words, the perception that coaches and teammates condone on-field antisocial behaviors—in addition to conforming to societal expectations of traditional masculinity—is related to higher levels of antisocial behaviors on the football field. In addition, conformity to traditional masculine norms mediated the relationship between moral atmosphere and on-field aggressive sports behaviors, suggesting a relationship between social norms and moral atmosphere. Results of this interdisciplinary endeavor are interpreted and situated within the extant literature of both the fields of sport psychology and the psychological study of men and masculinity. Sport psychologists can use results to design interventions that incorporate moral atmosphere and conformity to masculine norms in an effort to decrease aggressive sports behaviors in the violent sport of football.
Jesse Steinfeldt, Leslie A. Rutkowski, Thomas J. Orr, and Matthew C. Steinfeldt
Ronnie Lidor, Gal Ziv, and Tamar Gershon
In this article we reviewed a series of studies (n = 18) on psychological preparation of the goalkeeper (GK) for the 11-m penalty kick in soccer. The main findings of this review were that deception strategies (e.g., standing slightly off-center) can increase the chances of the kick being directed to a desired direction, and that individual differences among GKs should be considered when planning sport psychology programs for GKs. A number of research limitations and methodological concerns, such as the lack of ecological validity of the tasks performed in the studies and the lack of studies on psychological interventions, were discussed. In addition, a number of practical implications for sport psychology consultants who work with GKs in soccer were suggested.
Zoe Knowles, Jonathan Katz, and David Gilbourne
This paper examines reflective practice by illustrating and commenting upon aspects of an elite sport psychology practitioner’s reflective processes. Extracts from a practitioner’s reflective diary, maintained during attendance at a major sporting event, focused upon issues that relate to on-going relationships and communication with fellow practitioners and athletes. Authors one and three offered subsequent comment on these accounts to facilitate movement toward critical reflection via an intrapersonal process creating considerations for the practitioners with regard to skills and personal development. These issues are discussed in relation to pragmatic topics such as “staged” and “layered” reflection encouraged by author collaboration and shared writing within the present paper. We argue these outcomes against more philosophical/opaque considerations such as the progression of critical reflection and critical social science.
Jérémy B. J. Coquart, Yancy Dufour, Alain Groslambert, Régis Matran, and Murielle Garcin
The purpose was to study the relationships between psychological factors and perceptually-based values (Ratings of Perceived Exertion: RPE and Estimated Time Limit: ETL). The researchers obtained the scores of several psychological factors (anxiety, extraversion-introversion, neuroticism-stability, self-esteem, motivation, psychological resistance and endurance, desire for success, social desirability, dynamism, competitiveness, activity control, risk-taking, emotional control, aggressiveness, sociability, cooperation, acceptance of a judgment, and leadership) among 23 cyclists. The cyclists performed a graded exercise test in which the researchers collected RPE and ETL at 150, 200, 250 and 300W. Correlations between RPE/ETL and psychological factors were examined. RPE was correlated with leadership, psychological resistance and endurance. ETL was significantly correlated with psychological endurance. These results suggest a link between psychological factors, effort perception, and the time limits predicted by teleoanticipation. These relationships varied according to intensity.
Philipp Bennet Philippen and Babett H. Lobinger
The yips in golf is the interruption of a smooth putting movement by an involuntary jerk or freezing of the arm. Psychological factors seem to worsen the phenomenon. However, published data on how the yips in golf is cognitively and emotionally experienced are very limited. Moreover, the focus of attention in yips-affected golfers has not been investigated. Thus, we interviewed 17 yips-affected golfers to record the thoughts and feelings that are experienced in a situation in which the yips occurs. In addition, we asked them about their focus of attention right before putting. Content analysis revealed a negative cognitive and emotional pattern for all golfers. Furthermore, 11 participants reported focusing either internally or on possible mistakes. The results contribute to an understanding of the yips in golf and provide a starting point for further investigations into possible interventions for the yips.
Siobhain McArdle and Phil Moore
This article highlights four key principles of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and proposes situations where these tenets would be relevant from an applied sport psychology perspective. To achieve this aim, a case study of an athlete with a dysfunctional perfectionist mindset is employed. We conclude with possible research directions in applied sport psychology informed by CBT. These recommendations include the need to further develop an evidence based formulation system and the relevance of building a repertoire of “evidence-based” behavioral experiments to improve practice.
Paul McCarthy, Frank D. Perry, Derek Schwandt, and Wade Gilbert
Martin Camiré, Pierre Trudel, and Tanya Forneris
Whether life skills are developed through sport greatly depends on how coaches create suitable environments that promote the development of youth (Gould & Carson, 2008). The purpose of this study was to examine, using Gould and Carson’s (2008) model of coaching life skills, the philosophies and strategies used by model high school coaches to coach life skills and how to transfer these life skills to other areas of life. Interviews were conducted with both coaches and their student-athletes. Results indicated that coaches understood their student-athletes preexisting make up and had philosophies based on promoting the development of student-athletes. Results also demonstrated that coaches had strategies designed to coach life skills and educate student-athletes about the transferability of the skills they learned in sport. Although variations were reported, coaches and student-athletes generally believed that student-athletes can transfer the skills learned in sport to other areas of life. These results are discussed using Gould and Carson’s model and the youth development literature.