Like the sports medicine physician, the sport psychiatrist plays an important role in the sports medicine team (SMT). A specialist in diagnosing emotional disorders can increase the diagnostic and treatment capabilities of the SMT. The goal of this article is to increase awareness of the psychiatric disorders commonly occurring among athletes and highlight the value of accurate psychiatric diagnosis. Using vignettes involving established athletes, the article examines anxiety and mood disorders, eating disorders, substance use disorders, and attention deficit disorder as they occur in athletic settings, as well as other syndromes with particular relevance to athletes, such as overtraining and postconcussion syndrome. Other clinical issues encountered while working with athletes, including learning disabilities and career termination concerns, are also discussed. Finally, the basic concepts of transference and countertransference are reviewed to highlight important relational dynamics between the athlete and the SMT.
Jamie B. Barker and Marc V. Jones
This study reports the effects of a hypnosis intervention on a professional soccer player who reported low self-efficacy and a negative mood state relative to his soccer performance. Pre- and postintervention data were collected via a Soccer Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (SSEQ) that consisted of 10 items relating to good soccer performance, the Trait Sport Confidence Inventory (TSCI), the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), and a Soccer Performance Measure (SPM). An intervention program consisting of eight hypnosis sessions was conducted. These sessions comprised the presentation of ego-strengthening suggestions. Both visual and statistical analysis revealed substantial increases in trait sport confidence, self-efficacy, positive affect, and soccer performance, as well as a substantial decrease in negative affect over the course of the intervention. The findings of this case study suggest that hypnosis can be used to enhance self-efficacy, affect, and sport performance. A number of practical issues are presented surrounding the use of hypnosis in the context of English soccer and with athletes in general.
Robert Weinberg, Robert Neff, and Michael Garza
Since psychology professionals have a moral and ethical responsibility to evaluate the effectiveness of different products and services aimed at improving psychological/physical well-being, development, and/or performance, the purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Winners for Life book (and accompanying Parent Instructor Guide) on improving a variety of psychological factors for at-risk adolescents. Participants were 96 pairs from the Big Brothers/Little Brothers, Big Sisters/Little Sisters program. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: Winners for Life book, Winners for Life book plus instructor guide, or control group. Each group participated in a 12-week intervention program. Results revealed that both Winners for Life book conditions resulted in greater increases in self-esteem, self-perceived goal setting ability, optimism, and hope than the control condition, with the Winners for Life book plus instructor guide condition achieving the greatest improvements.
Four studies were conducted to assess the psychometric properties and the theoretical basis of a version of the Inventory of Desirable Responding in Relationships, which was originally developed and validated for the assessment of romantic relationships, in a different relational context (i.e., coach-athlete relationships). The first study aimed to address the content validity of the modified inventory, the Inventory of Desirable Responding in Coach-Athlete Relationship (IDR-CART) scale. The second study employed factor analytic techniques to examine its psychometric properties. Results confirmed the two-factor structure of the inventory: self-deception (CART-SD) and impression management (CART-IM). In the third study, data were collected under public and anonymous conditions. Results revealed, however, that neither condition supported the factor structure, thereby casting doubt on theoretical assumptions. The fourth study demonstrated that CART-SD is associated with indices of relationship quality, providing evidence of convergent validity. Limitations and future research directions are discussed.
This article explores the challenges of building a successful private consulting practice in sport psychology. The author examines the extant literature on the experiences of recent graduates as they enter the field of applied sport psychology and also describes how his own educational and early career experiences have shaped his practice. A four-part approach to consulting with athletes is outlined, along with detailed information regarding practice development, clientele identification, and fee structures. The personal qualities essential for creating a successful consulting practice in sport psychology are also explored. Finally, a five-stage model of career development provides guidelines for maintaining and growing a successful consulting practice.
Linda Lin, Richard P. Halgin, Arnold D. Well, and Ira Ockene
Eric D. Morse
Fraser Carson and Remco C. J. Polman
The aim of this case study was to investigate the emotional factors and coping strategies used by a professional rugby union player during rehabilitation from anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. A dominant (qualitative) - less dominant (quantitative) mixed methodological approach was established concurrent with the athlete’s rehabilitation. Twice monthly interviews and a self-report diary were completed throughout the rehabilitation process. Six questionnaires were used to assess specific aspects of injury rehabilitation identified from previous literature, including emotional response, coping, social support, and perceived autonomy. Content analysis of each phase of the rehabilitation process established 34 higher-order themes split into two general dimensions: Influential Emotions or Coping Strategies. Findings highlight the benefit of problem-focused coping to improve autonomy and confidence. A sequential movement through a series of emotions (shock, depression, relief, encouragement, and confidence building) was also identified.
Barbara Resnick, Christopher D’Adamo, Michelle Shardell, Denise Orwig, William Hawkes, J. Richard Hebel, Justine Golden, Jay Magaziner, Sheryl Zimmerman, and Janet Yu-Yahiro
The purpose of this study was to evaluate adherence to home-based exercise interventions among older women post hip fracture that were randomized to one of three exercise intervention groups or a routine care group. A total of 157 female hip fracture patients provided data for the intervention analysis. Factors evaluated baseline, 2, 6, and 12 months post hip fracture included demographic variables, adherence to treatment visits, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, stage of change for exercise, social support for exercise, mood, health status, pain, and fear of falling. The hypothesized model tested the direct and indirect impact of all study variables on adherence to exercise intervention sessions. Different factors appeared to influence adherence to visits across the recovery trajectory.
Agnès Bonnet, Lydia Fernandez, Annie Piolat, and Jean-Louis Pedinielli
The notion of risk-taking implies a cognitive process that determines the level of risk involved in a particular activity or task. This risk appraisal process gives rise to emotional responses, including anxious arousal and changes in mood, which may play a significant role in risk-related decision making. This study examines how emotional responses to the perceived risk of a scuba-diving injury contribute to divers’ behavior, as well as the ways that risk taking or non-risk taking behavior, in turn, affects emotional states. The study sample consisted of 131 divers (risk takers and non-risk takers), who either had or had not been in a previous diving accident. Divers’ emotional states were assessed immediately prior to diving, as well as immediately following a dive. Results indicated presence of subjective emotional experiences that are specific to whether a risk has been perceived and whether a risk has been taken. Important differences in emotion regulation were also found between divers who typically take risks and those who do not.