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Fraser Carson and Remco C. J. Polman

The aim of this case study was to investigate the emotional factors and coping strategies used by a professional rugby union player during rehabilitation from anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. A dominant (qualitative) - less dominant (quantitative) mixed methodological approach was established concurrent with the athlete’s rehabilitation. Twice monthly interviews and a self-report diary were completed throughout the rehabilitation process. Six questionnaires were used to assess specific aspects of injury rehabilitation identified from previous literature, including emotional response, coping, social support, and perceived autonomy. Content analysis of each phase of the rehabilitation process established 34 higher-order themes split into two general dimensions: Influential Emotions or Coping Strategies. Findings highlight the benefit of problem-focused coping to improve autonomy and confidence. A sequential movement through a series of emotions (shock, depression, relief, encouragement, and confidence building) was also identified.

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Barbara Resnick, Christopher D’Adamo, Michelle Shardell, Denise Orwig, William Hawkes, J. Richard Hebel, Justine Golden, Jay Magaziner, Sheryl Zimmerman, and Janet Yu-Yahiro

The purpose of this study was to evaluate adherence to home-based exercise interventions among older women post hip fracture that were randomized to one of three exercise intervention groups or a routine care group. A total of 157 female hip fracture patients provided data for the intervention analysis. Factors evaluated baseline, 2, 6, and 12 months post hip fracture included demographic variables, adherence to treatment visits, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, stage of change for exercise, social support for exercise, mood, health status, pain, and fear of falling. The hypothesized model tested the direct and indirect impact of all study variables on adherence to exercise intervention sessions. Different factors appeared to influence adherence to visits across the recovery trajectory.

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Agnès Bonnet, Lydia Fernandez, Annie Piolat, and Jean-Louis Pedinielli

The notion of risk-taking implies a cognitive process that determines the level of risk involved in a particular activity or task. This risk appraisal process gives rise to emotional responses, including anxious arousal and changes in mood, which may play a significant role in risk-related decision making. This study examines how emotional responses to the perceived risk of a scuba-diving injury contribute to divers’ behavior, as well as the ways that risk taking or non-risk taking behavior, in turn, affects emotional states. The study sample consisted of 131 divers (risk takers and non-risk takers), who either had or had not been in a previous diving accident. Divers’ emotional states were assessed immediately prior to diving, as well as immediately following a dive. Results indicated presence of subjective emotional experiences that are specific to whether a risk has been perceived and whether a risk has been taken. Important differences in emotion regulation were also found between divers who typically take risks and those who do not.

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Anthony Ferreira, Fabien Cornilleau, Fernando Perez-Diaz, and Charles Cohen-Salmon

This study used animal models to examine potential similarities between dependence on physical activity (i.e., exercise) and dependence on morphine. Using C57BL/6 mice, the study also tested the hypothesis that physical exercise (e.g., long-term wheel running) may enhance vulnerability to the development of morphine dependence. The existence of an endorphin-related dependence induced by physical activity was also assessed. Naloxone was used to precipitate morphine withdrawal in mice accustomed to morphine. Specifically, the study sought to assess the intensity of addiction provoked by injection of morphine in mice that engaged in wheel-running activity as opposed to inactive mice. After 25 days of free access to activity wheel, mice that engaged in wheel-running demonstrated increased vulnerability to naloxone-induced withdrawal symptoms, which may be linked to activation of peripheral, as opposed to central, opioid receptors. These results indicate a behavioral interaction in which engaging in wheel running appears to potentiate the effects of morphine addiction. Implications of these findings for understanding human behavior and exercise addiction are also discussed.

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Eric D. Morse

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Pia-Maria Wippert and Jens Wippert

Undesired career termination represents a critical life event for professional athletes. This study examined traumatic stress resulting from (a) a career-ending event and (b) the athlete’s separation from his or her social support network. Data were collected from 40 professional athletes who were members of the German National Ski Team, using standardized (Impact of Event Scale; Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale) and partially standardized (psychosomatic stress reaction) questionnaires. Correlations between the impact of termination and traumatic stress symptoms were observed over a period of 8 months. Athletes who experienced supportive termination (involving discussion with coaches) endorsed fewer symptoms than those who experienced socially disintegrative termination (lacking support of coaches). Nearly 20% of participants endorsed clinically relevant levels of traumatic stress at 3 and 8 months posttermination.

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Raphaël Laurin, Michel Nicolas, and David Lavallee

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a personal goal-based intervention on positive and negative moods among young athletes at a soccer academy. Study participants (N =22) were randomized into either a treatment group, which participated in a personal goal-management program (Bouffard, Labelle, Dubé, & Lapierre, 1999), or a neutral-task control group. Participants’ mood states were measured every 3 weeks. Results indicated significant postintervention group differences in positive and negative moods states, with the treatment group reporting higher levels of positive moods and lower levels of negative moods. A significant within-group difference over time was also found for the treatment group, indicating an increase in positive mood states and decrease in negative mood states as the program progressed. Findings from this study are used to inform recommendations for sport psychology interventions that use specific goal management procedures to facilitate positive emotional states among young athletes.