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Kevin M. Casebolt, Iva Obrusnikova, Patricia P. Hughes, Aaron Moffett, and Suzanna Rocco Dillon

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Ronald Davis, Charlotte Sanborn, David Nichols, David M. Bazett-Jones, and Eric L. Dugan

Bone mineral density (BMD) loss is a medical concern for individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Concerns related to osteoporosis have lead researchers to use various interventions to address BMD loss within this population. Whole body vibration (WBV) has been reported to improve BMD for postmenopausal women and suggested for SCI. The purpose of this case study was to identify the effects of WBV on BMD for an individual with SCI. There were three progressive phases (standing only, partial standing, and combined stand with vibration), each lasting 10 weeks. Using the least significant change calculation, significant positive changes in BMD were reported at the trunk (0.46 g/cm2) and spine (.093 g/cm2) for phase 3 only. Increases in leg lean tissue mass and reduction in total body fat were noted in all three phases.

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Hyun-Kyoung Oh, Dong-Chul Seo, and Francis M. Kozub

The purpose of this study was to explore the original version of Mitchell and Hastings’s (1998) Emotional Reaction to Challenging Behavior Scale (ERCBS) and estimate validity and reliability of a revised version containing 29 items. The Emotional Reaction to Challenging Behavior Scale–Korean (ERCBS-K) was studied using 445 in-service physical educators (228 females; 217 males). Data were collected using onsite administration as well as mail survey administration procedures. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses results supported a five-factor, 28-item scale (ERCBS-K). Acceptable internal consistency coefficients were found for each of the subscales of the ERCBS-K (Cronbach’s alpha ranged from 0.71 to 0 .87).

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Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey and Jeanette Crosland

This study described the dietary intake profiles of 14 female (F) and 9 male (M) trained British wheelchair games players. The M group showed significantly higher daily energy (2060 ± 904 vs. 1520 ± 342 kcal·day-1), carbohydrate and protein intakes than the F group (p < .05). The energy derived from carbohydrate, protein, and fat for both F and M groups were similar (53.6%, 16.9% and 29.3% and 53.3%, 19.0% and 26.8%, respectively), yet the carbohydrate intakes were slightly lower than those recommended for athletes. Only two participants from the F group showed adequate intakes of iron, and 19 participants from both F and M groups did not meet the dietary fiber recommendation but this may be related to individualized bowel management strategies. Overall, the dietary practices encompassed aspects of the dietary guidelines recommended for sport, but balancing the energy needs of wheelchair games play with the promotion of long-term health still needs careful consideration.

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Meghann Lloyd, Amy Burghardt, Dale A. Ulrich, and Rosa Angulo-Barroso

Infants with Down syndrome (DS) are described as being less active and they also experience significant delays in motor development. It is hypothesized that early infant physical activity may be influential for the acquisition of independent walking. Physical activity was monitored longitudinally in 30 infants with DS starting at an average age of 10 months participating in a treadmill training intervention. Actiwatches were placed on infants’ trunk and right ankle for a 24-hr period, every other month until walking onset. Data were analyzed to separate sedentary-to-light activity (low-act) and moderate-to-vigorous activity (high-act). Results showed that more leg high-act at an average age of 12 and 14 months is related to earlier onset of walking. It is recommended that early leg activity should be promoted in infants with DS.

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Nancy Getchell, Samuel J. Mackenzie, and Adam R. Marmon

This study examined the effect of short-term auditory pacing practice on dual motor task performance in children with and without dyslexia. Groups included dyslexic with Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC) scores > 15th percentile (D_HIGH, n = 18; mean age 9.89 ± 2.0 years), dyslexic with MABC ≤ 15th percentile (D_LOW, n = 15; mean age 10.43 ± 1.8 years), and typically developing (TD, n = 18; mean age 10.64 ± 1.8 years). Participants clapped and walked simultaneously for 3 pretest trials, completed 16 trials with auditory pacing, and 3 posttest trials without pacing. D_LOW differed significantly from D_HIGH and TD in mean relative phase (MRP) of the clap relative to the step, and variability (VRP) of the MRP. Significant differences also existed between pretest blocks and all other blocks in MRP. The results suggest that a short-term auditory pacing may be effective in improving MRP in all children. Further, there may be subtypes of dyslexia wherein children have more profound coordination difficulties and may preferentially change dual motor task performance with auditory pacing.

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Kenneth H. Pitetti, Michael W. Beets, and Judy Flaming

Pedometer accuracy for steps and activity time during dynamic movement for youth with intellectual disabilities (ID) were examined. Twenty-four youth with ID (13 girls, 13.1 ± 3.2 yrs; 11 boys, 14.7 ± 2.7 yrs) were videotaped during adapted physical education class while wearing a Walk4Life 2505 pedometer in five locations around the waist. Researchers viewed each videotape and recorded observed steps and activity time. Observed findings were compared with pedometer recorded steps and time. On average, pedometer registered steps were underestimated by approximately 14% ± 16.5%, whereas pedometer registered time was overestimated by approximately 8.7% ± 21.8%. The findings indicate that the accuracy of pedometers may be compromised during dynamic movement for youth with ID.