Figure skating is a distinct youth sport often overlooked in the sport psychology literature. This paper reviews the literature to substantiate how figure skating presents challenges for adaptation and development not shared by other sports. The possible implications of figure skating on identity and self-worth are considered, as is the role of coaches in the figure skating environment and how they can potentially foster or hinder their athletes’ positive psychological development. In this regard, the possible application of parenting style theories is discussed in the context of figure skating coaches. Finally, Smith, Smoll, and Curtis’s (1979) Coach Effectiveness Training program is considered as a potential intervention program to promote healthy psychological development for young figure skaters.
Lori F. Cummins
Frank M. Webbe and Shelley R. Ochs
Concussions in soccer are often coincident with the act of heading the ball, and some researchers have reported that soccer heading is associated with neurocoginitive decrements. This study aimed to understand (a) the personality factors that may predict frequent soccer heading, and (b) how knowledge of players’ personality traits might help sport counselors persuade neurologically at-risk players to moderate their heading behavior. Sixty elite male soccer players (ages 16-34) completed structured self-report interviews, the NEO-FFI personality inventory, and the Arnett Inventory of Sensation Seeking. Players who headed most had significantly higher extraversion scores than comparison athletes and soccer players who headed less. Physical height was the best predictor of heading frequency but was not correlated with extraversion, which was also a significant predictor. Players with the typical profile of the high heading group may be more resistant to suggestion that they alter their style of play for safety reasons.
Athletes with eating disorders risk compromising not only their performance but also their health and general well-being. These serious issues make recognizing and treating eating disorders extremely important. Unfortunately, the prevalence of eating disorders in certain sports is high, and identifying problems can be difficult. Accessing and engaging such athletes in effective treatment is also no easy task. By fostering understanding and cooperation between clinicians and others who work in the sport environment, athletes will have the best opportunity to access high quality treatment at the right time and have the greatest chance to repair both their health and sport performance. This paper takes a psychiatric perspective on eating disorders among athletes and discusses prevalence, diagnostic issues, and treatment options.
Trent A. Petrie, Christy Greenleaf, Jennifer E. Carter, and Justine J. Reel
Few studies have been conducted examining male athletes and eating disorders, even though the sport environment may increase their risk. Thus, little information exists regarding the relationship of putative risk factors to eating disorders in this group. To address this issue, we examined the relationship of eating disorder classification to the risk factors of body image concerns (including drive for muscularity), negative affect, weight pressures, and disordered eating behaviors. Male college athletes (N= 199) from three different NCAA Division I universities participated. Only two athletes were classified with an eating disorder, though 33 (16.6%) and 164 (82.4%), respectively, were categorized as symptomatic and asymptomatic. Multivariate analyses revealed that eating disorder classification was unrelated to the majority of the risk factors, although the eating disorder group (i.e., clinical and symptomatic) did report greater fear of becoming fat, more weight pressures from TV and from magazines, and higher levels of stress than the asymptomatic athletes. In addition, the eating disorder group had higher scores on the Bulimia Test-Revised (Thelen, Mintz, & Vander Wal, 1996), which validated the Questionnaire for Eating Disorder Diagnosis (Mintz, O’Halloran, Mulholland, & Schneider, 1997) as a measure of eating disorders with male athletes. These findings suggest that variables that have been supported as risk factors among women in general, and female athletes in particular, may not apply as strongly, or at all, to male athletes.
Eric A. Zillmer and Rebecca Weidensaul Gigli
Over the last two decades, there has been an increase in participation in intercollegiate sports with over 380,000 student-athletes participating in nearly 100 athletic conferences at 1,100 NCAA membership schools. Simultaneously, the professional development in the field of sport psychology has paralleled the public draw of competitive sports. This paper explores, from the university athletics departmental perspective, the opportunities as well as the challenges that clinical sport psychologists may encounter within this interesting and stimulating field. The sport psychologist’s training and expertise uniquely prepares him or her to play an important and rewarding role in the lives of coaches, student-athletes and all those who support them.
Andrew T. Wolanin
Sport psychology has become an increasingly popular area of interest for psychologists and psychology students. In addition, it has become an integral part of many collegiate and professional organizations that rely on psychological services for both performance enhancement purposes as well as mental health services. A model for delivering sport psychology services through a doctoral training clinic from a practitioner-scientist perspective will be discussed, as well as the challenges that are faced from an organizational and professional perspective.
The purpose of this article is to describe a sport psychology position housed within a sports medicine department at a Division I University. The conditions that brought about the creation of the position will be examined. These will include the relevant history of sport psychology services and the relationship between the athletic department, sports medicine department, and the counseling center. Other issues to be examined include the logistical and administrative hurdles in the development of the position as well as the scope of practice, service delivery model, and the types of presenting problems that are typically assessed and treated. The spirit of this article is to assist practitioners and administrators seeking to bring sport psychology services to their institutions. This model is by no means intended to be comprehensive or authoritative, but rather is to be understood as dynamic and malleable to the particular characteristics and history of other institutions.
Edward F. Etzel and Jack C. Watson II
Clinical sport psychology consultation in the fast-paced and high-stakes world of intercollegiate athletics provides the clinician with a challenging set of experiences. The culture of intercollegiate athletics and the demands of academics and intensive training create an undercurrent that psychologists must factor into their work with student-athlete clients. One must be well trained so as to best meet the complex, growing, mental health needs of older adolescents and young adult college students whose lives are also impacted by the normal developmental tasks of people of this age. Accordingly, to be effective, clinicians working in this setting must be well aware of the numerous unique ethical challenges that have the potential to impact their practice. Such ethical challenges may stem from issues dealing with the athlete, coach, athletic department personnel, compliance with NCAA rules and regulations, or legal issues surrounding this setting. It is the purpose of this paper to clarify several of these possible ethical challenges.