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Phil Esposito, Aaron Moffett, Patricia Paulsen Hughes, Suzanna Rocco Dillon, and Iva Obrusnikova

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Erin R. Mazzoni, P. Lynn Purves, Julie Southward, Ryan E. Rhodes, and Viviene A. Temple

The impact of a six-week indoor wall climbing on the perceptions of self for children with special needs aged 6–12 years was explored. Participants (n = 46) were randomly assigned to the intervention (girls, n = 4; boys, n = 19) and control groups (girls, n = 5; boys, n = 18). Belayers’ and children’s perceptions of efficacy were measured using specifically designed questionnaires and perceptions of competence and global self-worth were measured using Harter’s (1985) Self-Perception Profile for Children for participants with an adaptive age of 8 years or higher. Children’s self-efficacy and belayers’ ratings of children’s efficacy improved significantly, t(21) = 3.9, p = .001, d = .84 and F(2, 44) = 30.03, p < .001, respectively. The children’s judgments of their athletic and social competence and global self-worth, however, did not change over time or differ from the wait-listed control group (p > .05). These results suggest that it is likely that many experiences that enhance self-efficacy may be needed to improve self-perceptions.

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Susan Kasser

The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the meaning of exercise in the lives of individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) and describe the motivational basis that contributed to their exercise involvement. Twelve adults with MS (10 females, 2 males) between the ages of 32 and 56 years were interviewed. Analysis of transcribed interviews used an inductive approach. Three major themes emerged from thematic analysis of the qualitative data: exercising to maintain function and health, enhanced exercise self-efficacy, and feelings of hope and optimism. Findings were interpreted within the conceptual framework of self-efficacy and a disability-only social context.

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Helena Seymour, Greg Reid, and Gordon A. Bloom

Social interaction and development of friendships between children with and without a disability are often proposed as potential outcomes of inclusive education. Physical activity specialists assert that exercise and sport environments may be conducive to social and friendship outcomes. This study investigated friendship in inclusive physical education from the perspective of students with (n = 8) and without (n = 8) physical disabilities. All participants attended a reversely integrated school and were interviewed using a semistructured, open-ended format. An adapted version of Weiss, Smith, and Theeboom’s (1996) interview guide exploring perceptions of peer relationships in the sport domain was used. Four conceptual categories emerged from the analysis: development of friendship, best friend, preferred physical activities and outcomes, and dealing with disability. The results demonstrated the key characteristics of best friends and the influential role they play.

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Terry L. Rizzo

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Danielle Peers

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Aaron Moffett, Phil Esposito, Patricia Paulsen Hughes, Iva Obrusnikova, Suzanna Rocco Dillon, and Kevin M. Casebolt

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Stamatis Agiovlasitis, Jeffrey A. McCubbin, Joonkoo Yun, Michael J. Pavol, and Jeffrey J. Widrick

This study examined whether the net rate of oxygen uptake (VO2net) and the net oxygen uptake per kilometer (VO2net/km) are affected during walking in adults with Down syndrome (DS) and whether their preferred walking speed (PWS) minimizes the VO2net/km. Respiratory gases were collected as 14 adults with DS and 15 adults without DS completed a series of treadmill walking trials. PWS was measured over 15 meters in a hallway. The VO2net and the VO2net/km were higher in adults with DS than adults without DS. The overground PWS normalized for leg length was the same for both groups and did not appear to minimize the VO2net/km. Thus, adults with DS are less economical during walking than adults without DS. The overground PWS does not minimize the metabolic cost during treadmill walking.