This article describes the characteristics of diversity within academia and professional organizations in general and specifically within Kinesiology departments and Kinesiology-related organizations. While other types of diversity exist, this article refers to diversity in terms of race/ethnicity, gender, age, physical capability, socioeconomic background, and/or sexual orientation. Two Kinesiology departments, within the context of their universities, in two different regions of the United States are presented as models of best practice to improve institutional diversity. Also presented are one detailed example and several general examples of methods by which Kinesiology-related professional organizations have developed intentional strategies to improve diversity in membership and leadership. Presented models could, at least in part, be used by administrators and leaders to improve diversity within academic institutions and professional organizations.
Creating a Climate of Organizational Diversity: Models of Best Practice
NiCole R. Keith and Jared A. Russell
Creating an Inclusive Culture and Climate That Supports Excellence in Kinesiology
Patricia M. Lowrie and Leah E. Robinson
The continuing U.S. demographic shifts provide a substantial rationale for a corresponding transformation in the culture and climate of academic departments in higher education. In part, the response to the change is to increase the representation of people of color and others who have been historically absent from professional areas fed by the Kinesiology pipeline. However, the greater challenge is to understand and therefore, alter the internal culture. An intentional effort toward a culture of inclusion and full participation provides a working platform to transform existing practices and to cultivate policies from which emerging practices will offer opportunities for success. The understanding of the multiple identities of those within Kinesiology and the society served, the portals and gaps within the systemic architecture, and the methods of creating a multicultural organization—all play significant roles in contributing to change and transformation. Enlightened catalytic change agents must adopt new inclusive paradigms to prepare 21st century professionals with adaptive ideologies and behaviors for resolving future issues and challenges.
Diversity Enhancement in Kinesiology
Edited by Mary E. Rudisill
Diversity in Kinesiology: Theoretical and Contemporary Considerations
Samuel R. Hodge and Doris R. Corbett
In this article, the authors engage in discourse centrally located in the organizational socialization of Black and Hispanic kinesiology faculty and students within institutions of higher education. First, our commentary is situated in the theoretical framework of organizational socialization in regards to insight about the plight of Black and Hispanic kinesiology professionals. Next, data are presented that highlight the status of Black and Hispanic faculty in academe. Informed by previous research, the authors also discuss the socialization experiences of such faculty in kinesiology programs and departments, particularly at predominantly White institutions of higher education. Lastly, challenges are identified that are associated with recruiting, hiring, retaining, securing tenured status, and advancing Black and Hispanic faculty at leading doctorate-granting institutions in the United States.
Summary and Conclusions: How Can We Help Enhance Diversity in Kinesiology?
Samuel R. Hodge, Dana D. Brooks, and Louis Harrison Jr.
This article is divided into two major sections. First, the authors provided interpretations and conclusions about enhancing diversity in kinesiology based on the collection of articles for this Special Theme of the Kinesiology Review. There are six informative articles for this Special Theme on Diversity in Kinesiology that include Why We Should Care about Diversity in Kinesiology by Brooks, Harrison Jr., Norris, and Norwood; Diversity in Kinesiology: Theoretical and Contemporary Considerations by Hodge and Corbett; Creating an Inclusive Culture and Climate that Supports Excellence in Kinesiology by Lowrie and Robinson; Undergraduate Preparedness and Partnerships to Enhance Diversity in Kinesiology by Gregory-Bass, Williams, Blount, and Peters; Creating a Climate of Organizational Diversity—Models of Best Practice by Keith and Russell; and this final article. Second, we identify strategies and provided recommendations to increase the presence and improve the experiences of Black and Hispanic faculty and students in kinesiology programs.
Undergraduate Preparedness and Partnerships to Enhance Diversity in Kinesiology
Rosalind Chonise Gregory-Bass, Richard H. Williams, Bridget A. Peters, and Asherah N. Blount
Diversity and inclusion in Kinesiology is needed to ensure the future professionals of tomorrow engage in recognizing the shared fabric of science and inquiry. Initiatives targeting inclusion and diversity have shown promise in bridging the existing gap. Vital to this process is the role of faculty, administrators and students in providing academic support and paracurricular exposure to the field of Kinesiology. Historical perspectives and knowledge of best practices shape the conversation regarding innovative 21st century options deemed necessary for meeting this challenge. Our review describes programs that strengthen the preparedness of undergraduate students. In addition, we outline existing strategies leading to effective partnerships between undergraduate and graduate institutions. Diversity and inclusion are integral to the achievement of excellence and enhance each institution's ability to accomplish its academic mission and to serve its constituents.
Why We Should Care About Diversity in Kinesiology
Dana D. Brooks, Louis Harrison Jr., Michael Norris, and Dawn Norwood
The primary purpose of this article is to engage in a dialogue regarding why faculty, students, and administrators should care about diversity and inclusion in kinesiology. Recent American population growth trends data clearly reveals an increase in ethnic minority populations, particularly Hispanics. American public schools and colleges are experiencing greater ethnic diversity, leading to increased diversity within our classrooms. A review of the literature quickly reveals a lack of clarity in defining the terms diversity and inclusion. Throughout the article we define these terms and at the same time identify barriers (on and off campus) to promoting and ensuring a diverse learning environment. Strong arguments are presented supporting the value of diversity within the academy, especially in kinesiology. The value of diversity in kinesiology is refected in scholarly publications, conference programming, awards recognition activities, and in the recruitment and retention of a diverse faculty and student population.
The Forced-Choice Certainty Method: A Review of an Underutilized Survey Approach
The measurement of decisions requiring a comparison between alternatives could be improved for researchers because limitations exist with the more traditional survey techniques. To address this concern, the purpose of this review centered on discussing the merits of the forced-choice certainty method against those offered by single-stimulus Likert scale and forced-choice survey instruments. Few reviews have used the forced-choice certainty method to test topics which involve comparison and to gather accurate information on consumers, commercial products and services, and other important issues of public debate. This has occurred due to some negative literature on forced-choice surveys and preferences shown for the various reliability and validity statistics that can be easily produced with single-stimulus Likert-scale instruments. Ultimately, this work attempts to help researchers better understand the contribution that the forced-choice certainty method can make and showcase it as a product resulting from the merger of both forced-choice and Likert-scale instruments.
Spinal Cord Injury, Physical Activity, and Quality of Life: A Systematic Review
Jennifer R. Tomasone, Natascha N. Wesch, Kathleen A. Martin Ginis, and Luc Noreau
Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) tend to report poorer quality of life (QOL) than people without a physical disability. Leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) has been shown to improve the QOL of people with and without disabilities and chronic conditions. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the LTPA-QOL relationship among people with SCI by focusing on both objective and subjective QOL for both global QOL and domain-specifc (physical, psychological, social) QOL. Results suggest that LTPA is significantly associated with increases in both objective and subjective QOL in global QOL and all three QOL domains, with relatively few studies demonstrating a negative or nonsignificant relationship. Recommendations for future QOL research and interventions are discussed.
“And I Hope You See Things That Startle You”: What Students Can Teach Us About Physical Education
Donetta J. Cothran
Current conceptualizations of student learning recognize the active, constructivist, and mutually influential nature of student-teacher interactions in the shared class environment. Since students and teachers enter the classroom with potentially different prior experiences and current beliefs, their interpretation of class events may not be the same. Those differences may lead to misunderstandings and conflict; therefore, it is important to examine the student perspective on physical education. This paper offers two examples—curricular values and teaching styles—of student-teacher similarities and differences, and how those similarities and differences impact what does and does not happen in physical education class. A consistent theme across both examples is the importance of both achievement and nonachievement factors, and suggestions are offered for how physical education might better incorporate both factors to increase student learning and student and teacher enjoyment.