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Beliefs of German Prospective Physical Education Teachers: A Qualitative Examination Through the Lens of Teaching Quality

Sophie Engelhardt and Julia Hapke

Purpose: Prospective physical education teachers (PPETs) acquire beliefs during acculturation, which is the time before teacher education begins. Beliefs are based on shared experiences and influential in PPETs’ professional development. We examined German PPETs’ shared beliefs through the lens of teaching quality, comprising classroom management, student support, and cognitive activation. Method: Three focus group discussions were conducted, in which 13 German PPETs were instructed to work on shared lesson planning. The data were analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis. Findings: The PPETs believed that physical education should enable students’ participation in sports. Therefore, classroom management was reflected as “managing a physical education class as a prerequisite for the complexity of teaching.” Student support was reflected as “providing easy access to sports for all students.” Cognitive activation was reflected as “disregarding cognitive activation in favor of transmissive teaching.” The PPETs drew on their own physical education experiences as former students. Conclusion: Longitudinal studies focusing on cognitive activation are recommended.

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Coaching Transitions Across Borders: The Pursuit of Individuals Advancing Coaching Careers in the Competitive Global Landscape of Olympic Sports

Yoon Jin Kim and Minhyeok Tak

Intensified international competition for sporting success has facilitated coaches’ cross-national migration, which constitutes a space for coaches’ career transitions and development. This paper examines elite coaches’ international migration as part of coaching career transitions within the context of the global sporting arms race. Using a qualitative case study design, data were generated from documents and semistructured interviews with six South Korean coaches who had moved to Western nations to coach national teams in two Olympic sports. The analysis reveals an underlying mechanism of the coaches’ international mobility: dual imbalances existing between the sending and receiving countries—one in the levels of sporting performance; and the other in the perceived levels of modernisation in coaching cultures and sports systems. The migration opportunities were created by the performance imbalance between the home nation and destinations amid the structural context of the global sporting arms race. However, equally important is the individuals’ strategic initiative to seize the opportunities for their career development and mitigate the perceived modernisation imbalance in coaching practices. By highlighting coaches’ agentic capacity to navigate their career pathways within the global context, this study contributes to the literature on both international coach migration and coaching transitions.

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Becoming a World Champion Powerlifter at 71 Years of Age: It Is Never Too Late to Start Exercising

Cas J. Fuchs, Jorn Trommelen, Michelle E.G. Weijzen, Joey S.J. Smeets, Janneau van Kranenburg, Lex B. Verdijk, and Luc J.C. van Loon

This case study assessed body composition, muscle strength, cardiorespiratory fitness, and metabolic health of the present female world champion powerlifter in the 70+ age category who started resistance exercise training at 63 years of age with no prior experience with structured exercise training. Measures of body composition (magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning, leg volume); strength (one-repetition maximum leg press and extension, maximum voluntary contraction, and handgrip strength); physical function (short physical performance battery); cardiorespiratory fitness (peak oxygen consumption); and metabolic health (oral glucose tolerance test) were assessed. In addition, a muscle biopsy was collected to assess muscle fiber type distribution and cross-sectional area (CSA). Where possible, data were compared with previously (un)published sex- and age-matched data using z scores. Skeletal muscle mass index was calculated by dividing limb muscle mass by height squared. Data from the control groups are expressed as mean ± 95% confidence interval. Our participant (age: 71 years; body mass: 64.5 kg; body mass index: 27.6 kg/m2) reported a good bone mineral density of 1.09 g/cm2 (T score between −1 and +1) and very low values of abdominal and organ body fat (i.e., between 20% and 70% lower compared with a reference group of postmenopausal women). In addition, she showed a 33% greater skeletal muscle mass index when compared with healthy, older female control subjects (7.9 vs. 5.9 [5.7–6.2] kg/m2; n = 61) as well as 37% greater muscle quadriceps CSA (63.8 vs. 46.6 [44.5–48.7] cm2; n = 48) and 46% greater Type II muscle fiber CSA (4,536 vs. 3,097 [2,707–3,488] μm2; n = 19). Absolute leg press muscle strength was 36% greater (190 vs. 140 [132–147] kg; n = 30) and handgrip strength was 33% greater (33 vs. 25 [23–26] kg; n = 48) when compared with healthy, age-matched controls. In conclusion, even for resistance exercise naïve individuals, starting exercise at an advanced age can lead to improvements in body composition and muscle strength allowing older adults to reduce the risk for developing metabolic syndrome, live independently, and even compete at a world class level.

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Caffeine, but Not Creatine, Improves Anaerobic Power Without Altering Anaerobic Capacity in Healthy Men During a Wingate Anaerobic Test

Alisson Henrique Marinho, Marcos David Silva-Cavalcante, Gislaine Cristina-Souza, Filipe Antonio de Barros Sousa, Thays Ataide-Silva, Romulo Bertuzzi, Gustavo Gomes de Araujo, and Adriano Eduardo Lima-Silva

There is a lack of evidence on the additional benefits of combining caffeine (CAF) and creatine (CRE) supplementation on anaerobic power and capacity. Thus, the aim of the present study was to test the effects of combined and isolated supplementation of CAF and CRE on anaerobic power and capacity. Twenty-four healthy men performed a baseline Wingate anaerobic test and were then allocated into a CRE (n = 12) or placebo (PLA; n = 12) group. The CRE group ingested 20 g/day of CRE for 8 days, while the PLA group ingested 20 g/day of maltodextrin for the same period. On the sixth and eighth days of the loading period, both groups performed a Wingate anaerobic test 1 hr after either CAF (5 mg/kg of body mass; CRE + CAF and PLA + CAF conditions) or PLA (5 mg/kg of body mass of cellulose; CRE + PLA and PLA + PLA conditions) ingestion. After the loading period, changes in body mass were greater (p < .05) in the CRE (+0.87 ± 0.23 kg) than in the PLA group (+0.13 ± 0.27 kg). In both groups, peak power was higher (p = .01) in the CAF (1,033.4 ± 209.3 W) than in the PLA trial (1,003.3 ± 204.4 W), but mean power was not different between PLA and CAF trials (p > .05). In conclusion, CAF, but not CRE ingestion, increases anaerobic power. Conversely, neither CRE nor CAF has an effect on anaerobic capacity.

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Countermovement-Jump and Pull-Up Performance Before and After a Swimming Race in Preparatory and Competitive Phases of a Swimming Season

José M. Gonzalez-Rave, Vincenzo Sorgente, Aaron Agudo-Ortega, Víctor Rodrigo-Carranza, Stelios Psycharakis, and Anthony P. Turner

Purpose: Monitoring performance athletes’ training responses can be efficiently completed at competitive events. This study aimed to explore the changes in swimming, countermovement-jump (CMJ), and pull-up (PU) performance following training across a competitive phase, as well as immediately before and after each race. Methods: Fourteen well-trained male sprint/middle-distance swimmers (height 179 [7] cm, mass 70 [8] kg, age 18 [2] y), from 3 regional training groups, completed CMJ and PU tests before and after the national competitions in October and May, when race performance was also assessed. Results: Swimming race performance was significantly improved from before the national competitions in October to after the national competitions in May (1.8% [3.2%], P = .044, d = 0.60, moderate effect). Although there were no significant changes in PU velocity, CMJ performance significantly improved from before the national competitions in October to after the national competitions in May (mean difference 2.29 cm, P = .004, d = 3.52) and showed before-to-after race decreases (mean difference −1.64 cm, P = .04, d = 2.28). Conclusion: Swimming performance and CMJ performance improved as the season progressed, although these improvements were not directly correlated. PU performance did not appear to be sensitive to training or race-induced fatigue, in contrast to CMJ, in this group of male swimmers.

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Trehalose Improved 20-min Cycling Time-Trial Performance After 100-min Cycling in Amateur Cyclists

Nathan Gobbi de Oliveira, Luana Farias de Oliveira, Rafael Pires da Silva, Tamires Nunes Oliveira, Gabriella Berwig Möller, Juliana Murasaki, Manoel Antônio Ramires, Rafael de Almeida Azevedo, Guilherme Giannini Artioli, Hamilton Roschel, Bruno Gualano, and Bryan Saunders

Carbohydrate (CHO) supplementation during endurance exercise can improve performance. However, it is unclear whether low glycemic index (GI) CHO leads to differential ergogenic and metabolic effects compared with a standard high GI CHO. This study investigated the ergogenic and metabolic effects of CHO supplementation with distinct GIs, namely, (a) trehalose (30 g/hr), (b) isomaltulose (30 g/hr), (c) maltodextrin (60 g/hr), and (d) placebo (water). In this double-blind, crossover, counterbalanced, placebo-controlled study, 13 male cyclists cycled a total of 100 min at varied exercise intensity (i.e., 10-min stages at 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 W/kg; repeated three times plus two 5-min stages at 1.0 W/kg before and after the protocol), followed by a 20-min time trial on four separated occasions. Blood glucose and lactate (every 20 min), heart rate, and ratings of perceived exertion were collected throughout, and muscle biopsies were taken before and immediately after exercise. The results showed that trehalose improved time-trial performance compared with placebo (total work done 302 ± 39 vs. 287 ± 48 kJ; p = .01), with no other differences between sessions (all p ≥ .07). Throughout the 100-min protocol, blood glucose was higher with maltodextrin compared with the other supplements at all time points (all p < .05). Heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion, muscle glycogen content, blood glucose, and lactate were not different between conditions when considering the 20-min time trial (all p > .05). Trehalose supplementation throughout endurance exercise improved cycling performance and appears to be an appropriate CHO source for exercise tasks up to 2 hr. No ergogenic superiority between the different types of CHO was established.

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Having Impact and Doing It Quickly: The Place for Brief and Single-Session Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies in Sport Psychology Practice

Darren Britton, Andrew G. Wood, and Tim Pitt

Cognitive-behavioral therapies and related approaches are highly prevalent within sport psychology practice. Traditionally, these approaches are delivered across interventions comprising multiple sessions. However, in the fast-paced environments in which many applied sport psychologists operate, practitioners are sometimes required to provide fast, effective, and impactful interventions to athletes at their point of need within a single session. Single-session integrated cognitive-behavioral therapy presents a potentially effective approach for practice wherein time is often at a premium, and there is frequently pressure to make an impact quickly to improve performance. In this article, we put forward a stimulus piece that contextualizes single-session integrated cognitive-behavioral therapy and overviews how sport psychology practitioners may use such techniques with athletes. We also put forth a call for more practitioners to report more idiographic case studies that feature the use of brief or single-session interventions to further build the evidence base for such approaches.

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Students’ Perspectives of Social and Emotional Learning in a High School Physical Education Program

Ben Dyson, Seunghyun Baek, Donal Howley, Yongjin Lee, and Judy Fowler

Purpose: This study aimed to explore students’ perspectives and experiences of social and emotional learning (SEL) during physical education high school classes. Method: Using a case study design, focus group and individual interviews were implemented with 42 students. Based on the Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning’s SEL framework, deductive and inductive qualitative data analysis was conducted. The trustworthiness of this study was enhanced through peer debriefing process with various strategies. Result: Four themes were generated from the data analysis: Think about it more in depth, You can say how you feel, Care and support, and Different levels of buy-in. Discussion/Conclusion: Students’ SEL experiences in this study were overall aligned with the Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning’s SEL competencies and framework. This study suggests that more research is needed to better understand students’ SEL experiences holistically.

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Integrating Psychosocial Skill and Characteristic Development Into an English Academy Soccer Coaching Program: A Preliminary Investigation

Tom O. Mitchell, Ian H.J. Cowburn, Dave B. Alder, Kevin Till, Martin A. Littlewood, Tony Cook, and David Piggott

This study aimed to assess the impact of a psychosocial development program on academy soccer players with coaches being central design and delivery. The 8 Pillars program (designed to foster Communication, Control, Commitment, Confidence, Concentration, Resilience, Presence, and Self-awareness) was delivered through player workshops, coaching practice, and coach-led environmental manipulation. A total of 25 academy soccer players (M age 14.7 ± 0.3) completed the Psychological Characteristics of Development Excellence Questionnaire-2 pre- and postseason, and a self-report scale for each of the eight prescribed psychosocial skills and characteristics at five time points across the season. Significant (p < .05) improvement between pre- and postseason for “Imagery and Active Preparation,” “Seeking and Using Social Support,” and “Active Coping” factors within the Psychological Characteristics of Development Excellence Questionnaire-2 were evident. Significant (p < .05) improvements were shown for “Communication,” “Control,” “Commitment,” “Concentration,” and “Resilience” scales across the season. These findings give initial efficacy that a targeted, multifaceted program, largely delivered by coaches, can improve player self-reported psychosocial skills and characteristics in a U.K. academy soccer setting.

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The Quantification of Physical Performance and Internal Training Load in Youth Male Soccer Players During Preseason

Diogo V. Martinho, André Rebelo, Adam Field, Alex S. Ribeiro, Filipa Pereira, Bruno Bizarro, João Ribeiro, Silvano M. Len, Élvio R. Gouveia, and Hugo Sarmento

Purpose: The monitoring of training loads and quantification of physical performance are common practices in youth soccer academies to support coaches in prescribing and programming training for individuals. The interaction between training load and physical performance is unknown during a preseason period in youth soccer players. The current study assessed changes in training load and physical assessments across a 4-week preseason period. The relationship between physical performance and match playing time in youth male soccer players was also investigated. Methods: The training loads of 25 professional youth academy male soccer players were monitored throughout a 4-week preseason period. Assessments of power, agility, speed, and aerobic capacity were undertaken in the first training session. Session ratings of perceived exertion (sRPE) and well-being questionnaires were collected during all training sessions and preseason matches. Playing time during subsequent competitive matches was recorded. Results: T test and 30-m-sprint assessments, conducted on the first day of preseason, were predictors of sRPE throughout preseason (t test χ2/df = 2.895, poor adjustment; 30-m sprint χ2/df = 1.608, good adjustment). YoYo Test performance was related with changes in perceived fatigue (χ2/df = 0.534, very good adjustment). Faster players reported higher values of sRPE, and players with higher aerobic capacity reported higher levels of fatigue across preseason. Well-being, perceived fatigue and soreness, and sRPE decreased across preseason. Greater match durations were related to higher levels of fatigue during preseason (P < .05). Conclusion: The current study highlights the relationship between training load, physical assessments, and playing time. Coaches and practitioners can use physical test data at the start of preseason as an indication of players that report higher sRPE, perceived fatigue, and reduced well-being across preseason, supporting decisions around individualized training prescriptions.