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Relationship Between Objective and Subjective Markers of Muscle Recovery in Professional Handball Players

Alexander-Stephan Henze, Lynn Matits, Jochen Huth, and Frieder Mauch

Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between items of the Short Recovery and Stress Scale (SRSS) related to physical stress and recovery and the biomarker creatine kinase (CK) in professional handball. Methods: CK and SRSS items (physical performance capability, overall recovery, muscular stress, and overall stress) were assessed in an observational study of 16 adult male professional handball players from a team in the highest German league during the 2019–20 preseason. Their preseason training schedule included several microcycles, each consisting of 3 consecutive days of intense training followed by a rest day. On 5 of these rest days, when players were classified as nonrested, and the 5 immediately following days, when players were classified as rested, players completed the SRSS between 8:00 and 9:00 AM, followed by blood sampling. Correlations between SRSS items were performed using Kendall τ. The relationship between each SRSS item and CK levels over time was examined using a mixed-effects model with a random intercept. Results: CK levels and SRSS stress items were significantly higher and SRSS recovery items were significantly lower in nonrested players. SRSS items were significantly positively or negatively correlated (all items: P < .001) and showed a significant effect indicating lower CK levels in rested players (all items: P ≤ .001; η p 2 = .1 .32 ). Conclusions: The investigated SRSS items may be a viable option for assessing muscle recovery in adult male professional handball players in a cost-effective and noninvasive manner. They can be used as a single monitoring tool or as part of a multimodal approach.

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Timing of Caffeine Ingestion Does Not Improve Three-Point Shooting Accuracy in College Basketball Players

Zhi Sen Tan, Rachelle Yahn Yee Sim, Masato Kawabata, Dorrain Yanwen Low, Yulan Wang, and Stephen F. Burns

This study investigated the effects of the timing of caffeine (3 mg/kg body mass) ingestion on three-point shooting accuracy and other performance parameters during a basketball exercise simulation test (BEST). Eighteen college basketball players (mean ± SD: age = 24.4 ± 1.5 years, height = 181.7 ± 9.5 cm, body mass = 80.9 ± 13.2 kg) underwent one familiarization trial and three main conditions in a randomized order: (a) placebo (maltodextrin) and placebo, (b) caffeine and placebo, and (c) placebo and caffeine. Participants ingested either the placebo or caffeine pill 75 and 15 min before performing four quarters of the BEST and a three-point shooting protocol. During each quarter, participants completed 16 rounds of the BEST and ten three-point shots. Vertical jump height, 6 m sprint timing, BEST completion timing, three-point shooting accuracy, heart rate, rate of perceived exertion, blood glucose, blood lactate, and psychological measures pertaining to performance were measured. The BEST completion timing differed among conditions (placebo and placebo = 26.4 ± 2.0 s, caffeine and placebo = 25.8 ± 2.0 s, placebo and caffeine = 25.9 ± 2.1 s; p = .031) but not three-point shooting accuracy (placebo and placebo = 12.33 ± 4.10; caffeine and placebo = 12.61 ± 2.81; placebo and caffeine = 11.67 ± 3.77; p = .648), vertical jump height, or sprint times. Manipulating ingestion timing of caffeine did not improve three-point shooting accuracy, vertical jump height, or 6 m sprint timings, but caffeine can improve performance times during simulated basketball exercise irrespective of ingestion timing.

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Erratum. School Administrators’ Perspectives on and Support for Physical Education

Journal of Teaching in Physical Education

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The Impact of Mentoring Youth Placed At-Risk on the Socialization of Preservice Physical Educators

Karen Lux Gaudreault, Denis Schulz, Victoria N. Shiver, and Theresa Allgaier

Purpose: Grounded in occupational socialization theory, the purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of mentoring underserved youth on the socialization of preservice teachers within a community-engaged after-school program. Methods: Data consisted of semistructured interviews, critical incident accounts, and field notes. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Data were analyzed inductively using elements of grounded theory and constant comparison. Findings: Four themes were developed. First, each participant entered teacher training to provide positive experiences for students. Second, the practical experience supported preservice teachers in feeling more comfortable in their roles as educators. Third, preservice teachers developed personal relationships with the students in the after-school program. Fourth, preservice teachers internalized the obligation to model healthy social–emotional behaviors. Conclusions: Findings indicate the benefits of mentoring in a community-engaged learning project. Interacting with a diverse population of students can positively impact teacher socialization and feelings toward students and teaching.

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A Longitudinal Study on the Influence of Peer Network Status on University and College Students’ Academic Records in Hurdle Class

Ronghai Su, Meiling Wang, Deng Wang, Lin Chen, Bingxin Su, Xuanyan Su, and Maochou Hsu

Purpose: To examine the longitudinal impact and mechanism of peer network status on university students’ hurdle running academic records. Methods: Conduct a follow-up survey in the hurdle teaching, an experimental class, and analyze the data using the latent growth model. Results: (a) The intercept and slope of peer network status positively predict the slope of academic records. (b) Peer network status influences the slope of academic records through the slope of learning engagement, and the intercept of learning engagement acts as a masking effect between the two. (c) Personality traits moderated the relationship between peer network status and the academic records slope. Conclusions: (a) The impact of peer network status on academic records exhibits social effects. (b) The impact of peer network status on academic records has a double-edged sword effect. (c) Extroverted personality is most advantageous in enhancing peer network status and predicting the rate of improvement in academic records.

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Sleep Quality in Team USA Olympic and Paralympic Athletes

Travis Anderson, Natalia Galan-Lopez, Lee Taylor, Eric G. Post, Jonathan T. Finnoff, and William M. Adams

Adequate sleep is crucial for elite athletes’ recovery, performance readiness, and immune response. Establishing reference ranges for elite athletes enables appropriate contextualization for designing and targeting sleep interventions. Purpose: To establish sleep-quality reference ranges for Olympic and Paralympic cohorts using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and explore differences based on sex and sport types. Methods: Team USA athletes (men = 805, women = 798) completed the PSQI as part of a health-history questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to create reference ranges and linear models, and χ 2 test of independence determined differences in PSQI global and component scores between sex, games, season, and participation. Results: Six hundred thirty-two (39.43%) athletes reported poor sleep (PSQIGlobal ≥ 5). Men displayed later bedtimes (P = .006), better global PSQI scores, shorter sleep latency, less sleep disturbance, and less use of sleep medication than women (all P < .001). Winter Games participants had later bedtime (P = .036) and sleep offset time (P = .028) compared with Summer Games athletes. Team-sport athletes woke earlier than individual-sport athletes (P < .001). Individual-sport athletes were more likely to have low (P = .005) and mild (P = .045) risk for reduced sleep duration than team-sport athletes. Conclusion: These data provide PSQI-specific reference ranges to identify groups at greatest risk for poor sleep, who may benefit most from targeted sleep interventions.

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Who Coaches the Coaches? Exploring the Biographies of Novice Athletics Coach Education Tutors

David Stephens, Anna Stodter, and Matthew Timmis

Despite coach education being a focus of academic inquiry for over 20 years, coach developers (e.g., tutors) have been neglected from the literature until recently. In recognizing and understanding the role of the tutor in delivering quality learning programs for sport coaches, it is also important to consider who tutors are and how biographical factors influence their development toward expertise. This article utilizes Grenier and Kehrhahn’s Model of Expertise Redevelopment as a tool to aid understanding of the transition from sport coaching to tutoring. Narrative interviews were used with seven novice athletics coach education tutors embarking on a “fast-track” tutor development program. Data were subject to narrative thematic analysis and presented as composite vignettes. The vignettes portray six common themes highlighting that becoming a coach education tutor is a lifelong process of episodic experiences. The features of novice tutors’ biographies are a useful starting point in evidencing the development of expertise. These findings could be used to inform tutor recruitment and training. The current study adds to the emerging body of literature by providing one of the first empirical accounts exploring the developmental experiences of novice coach education tutors.

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Kenshi’s Experiences of Sword Fighting in Kendo: The Way of Ippon With Soul, Sword, and Body

Takahiro Sato, Peter R. Jensen, and Craig A. Wrisberg

In response to recent calls for promoting the contextual intelligence of sport psychology practitioners, the aim of the current study was to obtain the first-person competitive experiences of kendo fighters (i.e., kenshi). Existential phenomenological interviews were conducted with eight competitive Japanese-American kenshi residing in the United States. The findings of thematic analysis indicated that the participants possessed a strong commitment to earning ippon (i.e., a valid point), which was achieved by a subjective synchronization of mind, sword, and body in the execution of a strike against an opponent. They considered this to be a transformative experience, which elevated them perceptually out of the sporting context to a momentary sense of “cutting” the opponent with a real sword. The current findings also offer sport psychology consultants possible context-specific insights (e.g., importance of seme) and strategies (e.g., management of attentional focus, self-regulation techniques) for assisting kenshi in preparing for competitive situations.

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Multicultural Training and Program Climate in Master’s Degree Sport Psychology Programs

Macey Arnold and Trent Petrie

Key governing bodies (e.g., Association for Applied Sport Psychology) recognize that graduate programs must prepare multiculturally competent practitioners. Students and recent graduates of sport psychology master’s degree programs (N = 107, M age = 26.32, SD = 5.19) reported moderate levels of feeling safe, valued, and comfortable within their program; low to moderate levels of multicultural training integration; and low to moderate satisfaction with their multicultural training. Students of Color (n = 42) compared to White students (n = 63) reported less satisfaction with their multicultural training; felt less safe, comfortable, and valued; and perceived less multicultural integration. Furthermore, perceptions of multicultural training integration and of feeling safe, comfortable, and valued were significantly related to satisfaction with their multicultural training. Training programs are advised to improve integration of multicultural training, invest in program climate to help students feel safe and valued, and ensure continuing education of faculty members.

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A Penny for Your Thoughts: Athletes’ and Trainee Sport Psychologists’ Internal Dialogue During Consultations

David Tod, Hayley E. McEwan, Amy E. Whitehead, and Daryl Marchant

The purpose of this study was to explore the internal dialogue of trainee sport psychologists (TSPs) and athletes immediately following athlete–practitioner consultations. TSPs (four male and three female, age 22–32 years) and athletes (four male, three female, age 19–29 years) completed a thought-listing procedure twice, while watching video recordings of their previous consultations. The thought-listing procedure involved participants’ pausing the video to record the in-session internal dialogue they had experienced during the consultation. Participants’ responses were categorized into six dimensions: time, place, focus, locus, orientation, and mode. TSPs’ and athletes’ retrospective accounts provided evidence that their in-session internal dialogue was (a) present focused, (b) about in-session material, (c) about the athletes or themselves, (d) about internal and external events, (e) professional (i.e., related to the session), and (f) neutral. Findings provide trainees and inexperienced practitioners with insights into the thought content of TSPs and athletes to guide their own athlete interactions.