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Nicole M. LaVoi, Jennifer E. McGarry and Leslee A. Fisher

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George B. Cunningham, Na Young Ahn, Arden J. Anderson and Marlene A. Dixon

Women are underrepresented in coaching positions, both at the assistant and head coach levels. The purpose of this study was to examine one reason for this occurrence: gender differences in occupational turnover. The authors provided a review of the literature related to occupational turnover, integrating coaching and organizational psychology literatures. Based on these frameworks, the authors then conducted a meta-analysis of the quantitative research in the area, statistically aggregating results from 10 samples and 2,802 coaches. Results indicated that women intend to leave coaching sooner than do men (d = .38). Drawing from the review, the authors then examined potential reasons for the differences. Contrary to expectations, women were younger (d = −.56) and had shorter occupational tenures (d = −.59) than men, suggesting that other factors, such as their aspirations for advancement or the macro-level barriers they encounter, make coaching an unattractive option. Women had lower aspirations for advancement in the profession (d = −.74) and less positive experiences in coaching (d = −.23), though organizational experiences did not vary by gender. The results collectively suggest that occupational constraints can limit women’s aspirations and intentions to remain in coaching, even beyond what would be expected based on their age and time in the profession.

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Natalie Frost, Michael Weinborn, Gilles E. Gignac, Shaun Markovic, Stephanie R. Rainey-Smith, Hamid R. Sohrabi, Ralph N. Martins, Jeremiah J. Peiffer and Belinda M. Brown

Objectives: To examine the associations between physical activity duration and intensity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and executive function in older adults. Methods: Data from 99 cognitively normal adults (age = 69.10 ± 5.1 years; n = 54 females) were used in the current study. Physical activity (intensity and duration) was measured with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and fitness was measured by analysis of maximal aerobic capacity, VO2peak. Executive function was measured comprehensively, including measures of Shifting, Updating, Inhibition, Generativity, and Nonverbal Reasoning. Results: Higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness were associated with better performance on Generativity (B = .55; 95% confidence interval [.15, .97]). No significant associations were found between self-reported physical activity intensity/duration and executive functions. Discussion: To our knowledge, this study is the first to identify an association between fitness and Generativity. Associations between physical activity duration and intensity and executive function requires further study, using objective physical activity measures and longitudinal observations.

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Laura J. McGowan, Rachael Powell and David P. French

Sedentary behavior is associated with negative health outcomes, and older adults represent the most sedentary age group. There is currently little qualitative evidence to inform the development of sedentary behavior interventions targeting older adults. This study explored factors affecting older adults’ sedentary behaviors and the acceptability of potential strategies to reduce sedentary time. Semistructured interviews with 22 older adults with diverse socioeconomic backgrounds in Manchester, England were conducted. An inductive thematic analysis was structured using the framework approach. Limited availability of community resources was identified in deprived areas. Local environments impacted sedentary behavior, including sense of community belonging, crime, and physical infrastructure. Enjoyment, socializing, and feeling a sense of achievement were key motivations to engage in nonsedentary activities. As older adults desire social interaction and enjoyment, community interventions in urban settings should try to reduce sedentary behavior by offering group-based activities, particularly in deprived areas where current provision is limited.

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Claudia Meyer, Sophie Hill, Keith D. Hill and Briony Dow

Provision of choice and participation in falls prevention strategies is challenging for people with dementia. This study outlines development of a discussion tool to aid engagement of people with dementia and their caregivers in falls prevention strategies. The tool is based on a literature review of falls prevention and dementia care (1990–2016) and decision aid principles and was trialed over 6 months. A total of 25 community-dwelling people with dementia (M age = 80 years, SD = 7.7, 52% male) and their caregivers (M age = 73 years, SD = 12.3, 36% male) underwent falls risk assessment and evaluation of their preparedness to change falls risk behaviors. Most commonly rated, and prioritized for intervention, high falls risk factors were impaired balance/mobility (92%), polypharmacy (60%), and incontinence (56%). This discussion tool facilitated collaboration between people with dementia, their caregivers, and health professionals, to increase uptake of acceptable and feasible evidence-based falls prevention strategies.

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Kym Joanne Price, Brett Ashley Gordon, Kim Gray, Kerri Gergely, Stephen Richard Bird and Amanda Clare Benson

This study investigated the influence of cardiac intervention and physical capacity of individuals attending an Australian outpatient cardiac rehabilitation program on the initial exercise prescription. A total of 85 patients commencing outpatient cardiac rehabilitation at a major metropolitan hospital had their physical capacity assessed by an incremental shuttle walk test, and the initial aerobic exercise intensity and resistance training load prescribed were recorded. Physical capacity was lower in surgical patients than nonsurgical patients. While physical capacity was higher in younger compared with older surgical patients, there was no difference between younger and older nonsurgical patients. The initial exercise intensity did not differ between surgical and nonsurgical patients. This study highlights the importance of preprogram exercise testing to enable exercise prescription to be individualized according to actual physical capacity, rather than symptoms, comorbidities and age, in order to maximize the benefit of cardiac rehabilitation.

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Jenessa Banwell, Gretchen Kerr and Ashley Stirling

Women remain underrepresented in the coaching domain across various levels of sport both in Canada and internationally. Despite the use of mentorship as a key strategy to support female coaches, little progress has been seen in achieving parity. At the same time, greater advances in gender equity have occurred in other non-sport sectors such as business, engineering, and medicine. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to learn from non-sport domains that have seen advances in gender equity to inform mentorship for women in coaching. A mixed-methods methodology was employed and consisted of distributing mentorship surveys to female coaches (n = 310) at various competitive levels, representing current (88%), former (12%), full-time (26%), part-time (74%), paid (54%), and unpaid (46%) coaching status. In addition, eight in-depth semi-structured interviews were also conducted with women in senior-level positions across various non-sport domains, including business (n = 1), media (n = 1), engineering (n = 2), higher education (n = 1), law (n = 1), and medicine (n = 2), regarding the role of mentorship in advancing women in their field. A descriptive and thematic analysis of the survey and interview data were conducted and findings are interpreted to suggest considerable variation in the characteristics of female coaches’ mentoring relationships, as well as the need to move beyond mentorship to sponsorship for advancing women in coaching. Recommendations for future research and advancing women in coaching are provided.

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Edward K. Coughlan, A. Mark Williams and Paul R. Ford

Deliberate practice is defined as an activity that is highly relevant to improving performance. It is effortful, challenging, not inherently enjoyable, or immediately rewarding and underpinned by advanced cognitive processing. The authors examine the effect of increasing cognitive processing during deliberate practice on skill learning in intermediate-level performers using a novel approach and quasi-experimental design. Two matched groups of intermediate-level Gaelic football players practiced a kick they identified as being most relevant to improving performance during an acquisition phase and pre-, post-, and retention tests. During acquisition, participants rated practice for cognitive effort and enjoyment. An intervention group engaged in structured cognitive processing before, during, and after the kicking practice sessions, whereas a control group did not. Both groups improved kicking accuracy across pre-, post-, and retention tests; however, the intervention group improved accuracy significantly more than the control group. The intervention group rated practice greater for mental effort compared with the control group, while both groups rated practice low for enjoyment. The intervention group increased reflection and evaluation to a greater degree following practice compared with the control group. Findings highlight the value of applying the principles of deliberate practice and increasing cognitive processing to expedite learning in intermediate-level performers, with implications for skill learning across many professional domains.

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Ítalo R. Lemes, Rômulo A. Fernandes, Bruna C. Turi-Lynch, Jamile S. Codogno, Luana C. de Morais, Kelly A.K. Koyama and Henrique L. Monteiro

Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a combination of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of MetS worldwide is increasing. There is no study investigating the economic burden of MetS, especially in developing countries, on medication-related expenditure. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of medication-related expenditures with MetS and to explore how physical activity (PA) may influence this association. Methods: A total of 620 participants, 50 years or older, randomly selected in the city of Bauru, Brazil. Participants were followed from 2010 to 2014, and data on health care expenditure were collected annually. PA questionnaire was applied at baseline, 2 (2012), and 4 (2014) years later. Results: Mean age was 64.7 (95% confidence interval, 64.1–65.3). MetS was associated with higher medication expenditure related to diseases of the circulatory (P <.01) and endocrine (P <.01) systems. MetS explained 17.2% of medication-related expenditures, whereas PA slightly attenuated this association, explaining 1.1% of all health care costs. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that MetS has a significant burden on health care expenditures among adults, whereas PA seems to affect this phenomenon significantly, but in low magnitude.