This paper traces the path of the role of exercise in promoting health and the emergence of scientific study of the physiology of exercise from ancient times through modern times. Ancient physician–philosophers taught that exercise was important for health and employed exercise to control diseases such as diabetes and obesity, to offset the effects of aging, and for military preparedness. By the early modern era, the first books on exercise had been published, and the start of the use of exercise for therapy, rehabilitation, and occupational medicine emerged. Philosopher scientists proposed and applied experimental methods as early as the Middle Ages, and the scientific method was further developed during the early modern period. Experiments about the physiological responses to exercise began in the middle of the 19th century. The application of innovative research methods resulted in exponential gains in knowledge about the physiology of exercise throughout the 20th and 21st centuries.
The Winding Path of Measurement of the Body’s Responses to Exercise: Past, Present, and Future
Carol Ewing Garber
Minding the Body: The Evolution of the Psychology of Physical Activity
Steven J. Petruzzello
This essay, written as part of an invited address for the National Academy of Kinesiology’s 92nd annual meeting, with the overarching theme being “Honoring the Past, Celebrating the Present, Embracing the Future,” provides an assessment of the evolution of sport and exercise psychology, or what I refer to as the psychology of physical activity. Specifically, I examine the role that psychology of physical activity has played since the academy was established, with particular attention to the contributions of academy fellows. I then provide my reflections on the current status and critical issues for the psychology of physical activity. Finally, I offer some thoughts on future directions for the subdiscipline in the broader field of kinesiology and some thoughts on how the academy could advance the academic discipline of kinesiology.
Between Profit and Purpose: Employee Responses to Financial and Social Logics in Women’s Sport
Risa F. Isard, E. Nicole Melton, Elizabeth B. Delia, and Calvin Nite
Recent market growth in women’s sport has happened as fans increasingly support brands that embrace social issues, suggesting that women’s sport houses multiple logics (financial and social) that may be compatible. The purpose of this study is to explore employees’ perspectives of the logics in women’s sport and how these influence their workplace experiences. Using a case study design, we interviewed 15 women’s sport employees. We observed that they navigate both financial and social logics, which they see as compatible. This understanding of a complementary relationship has both behavioral (e.g., collaboration) and emotional (e.g., collective anxiety) consequences for employees. Notably, collective anxiety is simultaneously associated with negative effects and positive coping mechanisms, demonstrating its complexity in shaping individuals’ actions. This research advances understanding of how employees respond to multiple logics and the effects of this process. Insights from this study can help women’s sport managers better support workers.
Blending Physical Activity, Fitness, and Health and Public Health in Kinesiology
Early physical education programs were interested in how exercise and physical fitness can improve student health and well-being. This interest in improving health is a foundational purpose of public health. The emergence of physical activity (PA) as a health-enhancing behavior prompted epidemiologists and researchers to identify associations between PA, morbidity, and mortality and to understand the doses needed to enhance health outcomes. Public health experts convened consensus meetings, agreeing that physical inactivity was a public health problem. PA leaders and educators created workshops to train researchers and public health practitioners in topics on PA and public health. Kinesiology departments have embraced the PA and public health agenda. Eleven kinesiology departments have joined the Schools of Public Health, and some offer degrees or concentrations in PA and public health. Most kinesiology departments not in a School of Public Health offer undergraduate courses in PA, fitness, and health, blending kinesiology and public health topics.
How to Promote Physical Activity Across the Life Span: Tips From Grasshoppers, Ants … and Eleanor Metheny
R. Scott Kretchmar
This paper addresses two of the recurring themes of the 2023 National Academy of Kinesiology meeting—namely, how to articulate the value of physical activity most forcefully and how to promote it most effectively. Authors of several papers placed an emphasis on the values of well-being, particularly those related to health, fitness, physical rehabilitation, and exercise persistence. Yet, there was an acknowledgment that we had not been sufficiently effective in winning converts to activity across the life span. Questions were also raised, both implicitly and explicitly, about our unity in kinesiology and where we (or different parts of us) belong in university structures. I address these issues by employing two characters from The Fables of Aesop (the grasshopper and the ant) in addition to the philosophies of G.K. Chesterton and Eleanor Metheny. I present a paradoxical model for kinesiology that focuses on how different movements mean and celebrates extreme levels of diversity amid unshakable unity.
State-Level Politics and Bias Predict Transgender Athlete Bans
Kelsey M. Garrison and George B. Cunningham
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among the political leanings of a state, the state-level implicit and explicit biases against transgender people, and the presence of transgender athlete bans. The authors collected archival data from 2021 and 2022 bans in the United States to examine the hypotheses. As of 2022, 18 states had passed laws barring transgender athletes from participating in sports. Results from regression analyses showed that conservative-leaning states were more likely to enact transgender athlete bans than their peers. The relationship was mediated by explicit (but not implicit) bias toward transgender people. The findings have implications for research and practice. Sport managers have an opportunity to create transgender-inclusive workplaces for staff, coaches, and other managers. They should also work with campus counselors and other staff to ensure that transgender athletes have ample support.
Erratum. Are Preference and Tolerance Measured With the PRETIE-Q (Preference for and Tolerance of the Intensity of Exercise Questionnaire) Relevant Constructs for Understanding Exercise Intensity in Physical Activity? A Scoping Review
Organizational-Level Factors That Influence Women Coaches’ Experiences
James P. Strode, Heidi M. Parker, and Shannon Kerwin
The purpose of this study was to identify the supports and barriers women coaches experience at the organizational level and to determine how those factors influence interpersonal- and individual-level factors within their coaching context. Nine women who coach high school basketball were interviewed at two time points and asked to reflect on organizational-level factors relative to their coaching position and how those factors have shaped their coaching experience over time. Based on the results of the interviews, two organizational-level factors were identified as barriers for participants: navigating inconsistent hiring practices and hypermasculine culture within school sport. The participants described organizational-level factors as influencing their experiences at both interpersonal (e.g., support from mentors, barriers related to the athletic directors) and individual (e.g., age, experience, sexual orientation) levels. The findings provide empirical support for specific organizational factors that contribute to interpersonal- and individual-level coach experiences. The power structures embedded in these associations are defined and discussed.
Adapted Physical Activity Scholarship: Evolving From Corrective to Inclusion and Anti-Ableist
Karen P. DePauw
Kinesiology and adapted physical activity (APA) share a common history rooted in the medical model approach to physical activity, movement, and the human body. The evolution of APA was influenced by these early roots and later by special-education legislation, sensory-motor perspectives, inclusion movement, and the disability-rights movement. Originally identified as adapted physical education, APA emerged as a professional field and an academic discipline. Since the 1950s, the research and scholarship has increased and cuts across the specialization areas (subdisciplines) of kinesiology. The multidisciplinary nature of APA scholarship has also reached beyond the discipline of kinesiology informed by disability studies and sociology. Reflection about APA and kinesiology reveals the ableist nature of the medical model, which informed early professional practice and scholarship. Thus, it is critical that APA and kinesiology engage in anti-ableist scholarship to better understand human physical activity and movement inclusive of individuals with disabilities.
Entrepreneurial Bricolage and Innovation in Sport for Development and Peace Organizations
Fredrik O. Andersson, Per G. Svensson, and Lewis Faulk
Many sport for development and peace organizations operate with limited resources and in low-resource environments. While resource constraints impede some organizations, others demonstrate an adaptive behavior, known as bricolage, to repurpose and flexibly engage existing resources to accomplish their goals. In this study, we ask what distinguishes organizations that engage in bricolage from others. We specifically test whether sport for development and peace nonprofits that engage in bricolage are more likely to engage in social innovation, and we test those findings against organizational size, age, and characteristics of organizations’ operating environments. Using data from an international sample of 161 sport for development and peace nonprofits, we find that organizations employing greater levels of bricolage also demonstrate significantly higher levels of innovation, except for process-focused innovations, which are significantly associated with environmental turbulence. Organizational size itself does not appear to influence the use of bricolage or the relationship between bricolage and innovation.