This paper begins with the premise that the purpose of physical education is to help young people grow personal and durable playgrounds. That is, its goal is to allow students in schools to develop the skills and understandings about various movement topics to the extent that they can engage with these in deep and meaningful ways long after their lessons in the gymnasium have concluded. The paper presents a schematic that links how a physical education curriculum should be framed with the necessary ingredients of high-quality teaching to allow for successful forays into various movement cultures. The next section includes a justification of the schema using the very best of research in sport pedagogy that has been translated into school physical education settings. Two specific grand adventures that are the vehicles for creating enduring playgrounds are presented, these being sport education and student-designed games.
Ayane Muro, Nozomi Takatoku, Chiaki Ohtaka, Motoko Fujiwara, and Hiroki Nakata
We investigated performance levels on conducting continuous two-footed jumping of preschool children (4 years old) to high school students (16 years old) to clarify the developmental progression and sex differences in motor coordination and agility. In total, 450 children (boys: 227; girls: 223) participated in this study. We set 10 obstacles to jump over for continuous two-footed jumping and analyzed the movement time (MT), aerial time (AT), and contact time (CT), and variabilities in AT and CT in 7 year-based categories, using a high-speed camera. We also used multiple regression analysis to identify the predictors of MT. MT and CT shortened until 8 years, whereas AT continued to shorten after 8 years, suggesting that the jumping strategy differs between those younger/older than 8 years. MT, AT, and CT were significantly shorter among boys than girls from preschool children to high school students. In addition, when using multiple regression analysis, the main predictor of MT changed gradually from SD of CT to AT with increasing age. Our findings suggest that the motor control mechanisms related to continuous two-footed jumping differ depending on the age and sex and provide findings to advance understanding of the age-related motor coordination and agility in children.
In the past decade and a half, scientific discoveries brought to light the prospect that tackle football causes serious brain trauma. This raised questions about the sport’s ethical permissibility. By employing scientific, philosophical, sociological, and historical findings, I consider whether it is ethically defensible to permit adults to play the game. My approach works within the bounds of both the ethical theory of liberalism and incorporates several sociological theories focused on gender. I propose that external cultural influences deserve some credit for shaping decisions to participate in America’s most popular spectator sport and contend that societies must establish genuinely pluralistic and inclusive gender ideologies and structures to ensure football’s permissibility. In particular, I suggest that to ensure that tackle football is ethical for adults, the presence and prominence of gender pluralism and inclusivity in youth settings are necessary.
Miguel A. López-Gajardo, Inmaculada González-Ponce, Tomás García-Calvo, Edgar Enrich-Alturo, and Francisco M. Leo
We present two studies examining the relationship between athlete leadership quality and team resilience and explored the mediating effect of team identification. In Study 1, 194 soccer players (Mage = 18.50, SD = 4.49) from eight national teams participated. Structural equation modeling showed cross-sectionally that the four types of athlete leadership qualities were positively related to the characteristics of resilience and negatively to vulnerability under pressure. Team identification was shown to be a mediator of these relationships. Study 2, with four different time-points, involved 208 young soccer players (Mage = 16.05, SD = 3.39) from two professional clubs (i.e., La Liga). Cross-lagged panel models revealed that task leadership quality (Times 1–2) was positively related to the characteristics of resilience (Times 3–4) and negatively to vulnerability under pressure (Times 3–4). However, team identification did not mediate these relationships. Therefore, practitioners should consider the perceptions of leader quality to achieve benefits during competition.
Brad McKay, Abbey Corson, Mary-Anne Vinh, Gianna Jeyarajan, Chitrini Tandon, Hugh Brooks, Julie Hubley, and Michael J. Carter
A priori power analyses can ensure studies are unlikely to miss interesting effects. Recent metascience has suggested that kinesiology research may be underpowered and selectively reported. Here, we examined whether power analyses are being used to ensure informative studies in motor behavior. We reviewed every article published in three motor behavior journals between January 2019 and June 2021. Power analyses were reported in 13% of studies (k = 636) that tested a hypothesis. No study targeted the smallest effect size of interest. Most studies with a power analysis relied on estimates from previous experiments, pilot studies, or benchmarks to determine the effect size of interest. Studies without a power analysis reported support for their main hypothesis 85% of the time, while studies with a power analysis found support 76% of the time. The median sample sizes were n = 17.5 without a power analysis and n = 16 with a power analysis, suggesting the typical study design was underpowered for all but the largest plausible effect size. At present, power analyses are not being used to optimize the informativeness of motor behavior research. Adoption of this widely recommended practice may greatly enhance the credibility of the motor behavior literature.
Irén Szalai, Anita Csorba, Tian Jing, Endre Horváth, Edit Bosnyák, István Györe, Zoltán Zsolt Nagy, Delia Cabrera DeBuc, Miklós Tóth, and Gábor Márk Somfai
Regular physical exercise is known to lower the incidence of age-related eye diseases. We aimed to assess the acute chorioretinal alterations in older adults following intense physical strain. Seventeen senior elite athletes were recruited who underwent an aerobic exercise on a cycle ergometer and macular scanning by optical coherence tomography. A significant thinning of the entire retina was observed 1 min after exercise, followed by a thickening at 5 min, after which the thickness returned to baseline. This trend was similar in almost every single retinal layer, although a significant change was observed only in the inner retina. Choroidal thickness changes were neither significant nor did they correlate with the thickness changes of intraretinal layers. The mechanism of how these immediate retinal changes chronically impact age-related sight-threatening pathologies that, in turn, result in a substantially reduced quality of life warrants further investigation on nontrained older adults as well.
Lucas Ugliara, Martim Bottaro, Sávio Alex, James J. Tufano, Anthony J. Blazevich, Valdinar Junior, and Amilton Vieira
Aging is associated with neurodegeneration and a loss of muscle function, especially in lower-limb muscles. While caffeine may augment muscle force generation through multiple effects on the central nervous system, no studies have yet compared the effects of caffeine on force-generating capacity between younger and older men, who might respond differently due to age-related changes in the structures on which caffeine acts. In a double-blind, controlled trial, 22 younger (25 ± 5 years) and 21 older (68 ± 6 years) men were tested for isometric plantarflexor torque on two separate days (2–7 days apart) before and 60 min after ingesting 3 mg/kg (∼2 cups of coffee) of caffeine or placebo. No effects of caffeine ingestion on peak torque or rate of torque development were detected in either older or younger men. Therefore, 3 mg/kg of caffeine may not acutely counteract age-related decreases in force capacity of the functionally important plantarflexor muscles.
Elizabeth Coker and Anat V. Lubetzky
Remote health monitoring has become increasingly important, especially in aging populations. We aimed to identify tasks that are sensitive to age-related changes in balance during fully remote, at-home balance assessment. Participants were 12 healthy young adults (mean age = 26.08 years, range: 18–33) and 12 healthy older adults (mean age = 67.33 years, range: 60–75). Participants performed standing tasks monitored via video conference while their balance was quantified using a custom iPhone application measuring mediolateral center of mass acceleration. We included three stances (feet together, tandem, and single leg) with eyes open or closed, with or without a concurrent cognitive task. Older adults demonstrated significantly more variable center of mass accelerations in tandem (p = .04,
Kevin Lanza, Melody Alcazar, Casey P. Durand, Deborah Salvo, Umberto Villa, and Harold W. Kohl III
Background: Extreme heat may discourage physical activity of children while shade may provide thermal comfort. The authors determined the associations between ambient temperature, shade, and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) of children during school recess. Methods: Children aged 8–10 (n = 213) wore accelerometers and global positioning system monitors during recess at 3 school parks in Austin, Texas (September–November 2019). Weather data originated from 10 sensors per park. The authors calculated shade from imagery using a geographic information system (GIS) and time-matched physical activity, location, temperature, and shade data. The authors specified piecewise multilevel regression to assess relations between average temperature and percentage of recess time in MVPA and shade. Results: Temperature ranged 11 °C to 35 °C. Each 1 °C higher temperature was associated with a 0.7 percentage point lower time spent in MVPA, until 33 °C (91 °F) when the association changed to a 1.5 lower time (P < .01). Each 1 °C higher temperature was associated with a 0.3 percentage point higher time spent under shade, until 33 °C when the association changed to a 3.4 higher time (P < .001). At 33 °C or above, the direct association between shade and MVPA weakened (P < .05), with no interaction effect above 33 °C (P > .05). Children at the park with the most tree canopy spent 6.0 percentage points more time in MVPA (P < .01). Conclusions: Children engage in less MVPA and seek shade during extreme heat and engage in more MVPA in green schoolyards. With climate change, schools should consider interventions (eg, organizing shaded play, tree planting) to promote heat safe MVPA.