Background: Interrupting prolonged sitting acutely lowers blood pressure in nonstroke populations. However, the dose–response effect in stroke survivors is unknown. The authors investigated different doses of light-intensity standing exercises that interrupt prolonged sitting and reduce blood pressure immediately and over 24 hours in stroke survivors. Methods: Within-participant, laboratory-based, dose escalation trial. Conditions (8 h) were prolonged sitting and 2 experimental conditions of standing exercises with increasing frequency (3 cohorts, 2 × 5 min to 6 × 5 min). The primary outcome is the mean systolic blood pressure. Results: Twenty-nine stroke survivors (aged 66  y) participated. Frequent bouts of standing exercises lowered the mean systolic blood pressure following the 4 × 5-minute (−2.1 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval [CI], −3.6 to −0.6) and 6 × 5-minute conditions (−2.3 mm Hg; 95% CI, −4.2 to −0.5) compared with prolonged sitting. Diastolic blood pressure was lowered following the 6 × 5-minute condition (−1.4 mm Hg; 95% CI, −2.7 to −0.2). The 24-hour systolic blood pressure increased following the 2 × 5-minute condition (6.9 mm Hg; 95% CI, 3.1 to 10.6). Conclusions: Interrupting prolonged sitting with more frequent bouts of standing exercises lowers systolic and diastolic blood pressure in stroke survivors. However, reductions may only be short term, and investigations on sustained effects are warranted.
Paul Mackie, Gary Crowfoot, Heidi Janssen, Elizabeth Holliday, David Dunstan, and Coralie English
Xinge Zhang, Sangho Jee, Jialin Fu, Bowen Wang, Luyang Zhu, Yiming Tu, Lei Cheng, Gaotian Liu, Rui Li, and Justin B. Moore
This study examined the independent associations between psychosocial factors, perceived neighborhood characteristics, and physical activity (PA) in Chinese adolescents. A cross-sectional study using a convenience sample was conducted in fall 2019 at a high school in Wuhan, China. Sociodemographic data, body weight, height, psychosocial factors, perceptions of neighborhood environment, and PA were collected using questionnaires. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed in 4 steps, where step 1 included demographic covariates, step 2 added psychosocial factors into the model, step 3 added perceived neighborhood environmental factors, and step 4 added interaction terms between significant psychosocial and environmental factors. A total of 4027 adolescents were included in analysis. The results of the third model indicated that friends’ support (b = 4.58), friends’ norms (b = 7.16), barriers to PA (b = −10.19), autonomous motivation (b = 4.75), self-efficacy (b = 8.86), the presence of shops/stores nearby (b = 5.79), and the availability of PA resources (b = 6.02) were significant predictors (P < .05) of moderate to vigorous PA. None of the interaction terms were significant in the fourth model. Our results suggest that interventions targeting the PA of Chinese adolescents should take into account the attitudes toward PA, perceived barriers to PA, controlled motivation, perceptions of neighborhood PA resource availability, and perceived neighborhood safety to maximize effectiveness.
Eka Peng Cox, Rebecca Cook, Nicholas O’Dwyer, Cheyne Donges, Helen Parker, Hoi Lun Cheng, Katharine Steinbeck, Janet Franklin, and Helen O’Connor
Background: There is evidence that physical activity (PA), sitting time, and obesity may impact cognition, but few studies have examined this in young women. Methods: Healthy women (18–35 y), without conditions that impair cognition, were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Participants completed anthropometric and validated computerized cognitive assessments (IntegNeuro™). Performance on 5 cognitive domains (impulsivity, attention, information processing, memory, and executive function) was reported as z scores. Sitting hours and weekly PA calculated from time in low-, moderate-, and high-intensity activity were obtained via the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Analysis of variance/analysis of covariance, chi-square, and linear regression were used. Results: 299 (25.9 [5.1] y) women (low PA = 19%; moderate PA = 40%; high PA = 41%) participated. High PA women had lower body mass index (high PA = 26.1 [6.5]; moderate PA = 30.0 [8.7]; low PA = 31.0 [11.1] kg/m2; P < .001) and less sitting time (high PA = 6.6 [3.1]; moderate PA = 7.7 [2.8]; low PA = 9.3 [3.6] hr/weekday; P < .0001). Cognitive function was within normal ranges and did not differ between any PA groups (P = .42). Adjusting for body mass index, C-reactive protein, or sitting hours did not alter results. Weak correlations were found between time in high-intensity activity and impulsivity (b = 0.12, r 2 = .015; P = .04), and between sitting hours and information processing efficiency (b = −0.18, r 2 = .03; P = .002). Valuesare presented as mean (SD). Conclusions: Cognitive function was within the normal range, regardless of PA or sitting time.
Jodie A. Stearns, Paul J. Veugelers, Tara-Leigh McHugh, Chris Sprysak, and John C. Spence
Background: Potential income disparities were examined in the (1) awareness and uptake of the Children’s Fitness Tax Credit (CFTC), and (2) physical activity (PA) of children from families who did and did not claim the credit in Alberta, Canada in 2012 and 2014. Methods: Secondary analyses of 3 cross-sectional data sets of grade 5 students (10–11 y) were performed, including Alberta Project Promoting healthy Living for Everyone Schools 2012 (N = 1037), and Raising healthy Eating and Active Living Kids Alberta 2012 (N = 2676), and 2014 (N = 3125). Parents reported whether they claimed the CFTC in the previous year, their education and household income, and their child’s gender and PA. Children self-reported their PA from the previous 7 days. In Alberta Project Promoting healthy Living for Everyone Schools, children also wore pedometers. Analyses adjusted for clustering within schools and demographic factors. Results: Higher income families (≥$50,000/y) were more likely to be aware of and to have claimed the CFTC compared with low-income families (<$50,000/y). The CFTC was associated with organized PA with larger associations for higher-income families (odds ratio = 9.03–9.32, Ps < .001) compared with lower-income families (odds ratio = 3.27–4.05, Ps < .01). No associations existed for overall PA or pedometer steps with the CFTC. Conclusions: Income disparities exist in the awareness, uptake, and potential impact of the CFTC. Tax credits are not effective in promoting overall PA.
Markus Gerber, Christin Lang, Johanna Beckmann, Jan Degen, Rosa du Randt, Stefanie Gall, Kurt Z. Long, Ivan Müller, Madeleine Nienaber, Peter Steinmann, Uwe Pühse, Jürg Utzinger, Siphesihle Nqweniso, and Cheryl Walter
Background: Little is known whether physical activity (PA)-promoting environments are equally accessible to children with divergent socioeconomic status (SES) in low-/middle-income countries. The authors, therefore, examined whether South African children from poorer versus wealthier families living in marginalized communities differed in moderate to vigorous PA and cardiorespiratory fitness. We also tested associations between family car ownership and PA/cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods: Parents/guardians of 908 children (49% girls, mean age = 8.3 [1.4] y) completed a survey on household SES. PA was assessed via 7-day accelerometry, parental and child self-reports, and cardiorespiratory fitness with the 20-m shuttle run test. Results: Based on accelerometry, most children met current moderate to vigorous PA recommendations (≥60 min/d). About 73% of the children did not engage in structured physical education lessons. Whereas children of the lowest SES quintile accumulated higher levels of device-based moderate to vigorous PA, peers from the highest SES quintile engaged in more sedentary behaviors, but self-reported higher engagement in sports, dance, and moving games after school. Families’ car ownership was associated with higher parent/self-reported leisure-time PA. Conclusions: A deeper understanding is needed about why wealthier children are more sedentary, but simultaneously engage in more leisure-time PA. The fact that access to structural physical education is denied to most children is critical and needs to be addressed.
Lisa Chaba, Stéphanie Scoffier-Mériaux, Fabienne d’Arripe-Longueville, and Vanessa Lentillon-Kaestner
This article focuses on two popular sports that can put male athletes at risk of developing an eating disorder: bodybuilding and running. Bodybuilders concentrate on gaining muscle mass and runners on leaning body mass. Based on the trans-contextual model of motivation, this study aimed to better understand the psychological mechanisms underlying eating disorders in these athletes. In all, 272 male bodybuilders and 217 male runners completed measures of sport motivation, theory of planned behavior variables (i.e., attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and intention to gain muscle mass/lean body mass), and eating disorders (dieting, control, and bulimia behaviors). The results revealed satisfactory fit indices for both samples. Autonomous and controlled motivations for sport were positively directly and indirectly related to eating disorders in these athletes. This motivational mechanism needs more in-depth investigation, and motivational profiles might help distinguish athletes with and without eating disorders.
Arlette C. Perry, Emily W. Flanagan, Carolina Velasquez, Kara D. Bolon, Gina C. Zito, and Soyeon Ahn
Background: This study evaluated the effects of a novel nutrition and movement science after-school program integrating laboratory experiences for minority children. Laboratory experiences demonstrated how the body moves, functions, and performs in response to exercise and healthy nutrition. Methods: A total of 76 children from 4 after-school programs that were primarily Latino and black were randomly assigned to either an experimental translational health in nutrition and kinesiology (THINK; n = 46) or standard curriculum that served as the control group (CON; n = 30). An analysis of covariance controlling for baseline values was used to compare differences between THINK and CON after the 4-month intervention. Results: Following the program, THINK participants evidenced lower triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness (P < .01 and <.05, respectively). THINK students showed greater improvements in aerobic fitness, grip strength, and agility than CON (P < .01, <.01, and <.05, respectively). Participants in THINK also demonstrated higher scores on their nutrition habits/behaviors questionnaire (P < .01), nutrition science (P < .05), and exercise fitness tests (P < .001) than CON. Conclusion: An innovative curriculum featuring nutrition and kinesiology education interfaced with hands-on laboratory experiences and physical activities can improve physical outcomes and health-related behaviors in after-school programs serving minority children.
Kevin E. Miller, Timothy R. Kempf, Brian C. Rider, and Scott A. Conger
Background: Previous research studies have found that heart rate monitors that predict maximal oxygen consumption (
David Sánchez-Oliva, Antonio L. Palmeira, Eliana V. Carraça, Pedro J. Teixeira, David Markland, and Marlene N. Silva
Background: Using self-determination theory as a framework, the aim of this study was 2-fold: (1) identify different profiles of motivational strategies used by exercise professionals and (2) examine associations of these motivational profiles with work-related variables: measures, perceived job pressures, need satisfaction/frustration, and perceived exercisers’ motivation. Methods: Participants were 366 exercise professionals (193 males; experience = 7.7 [5.8] y) currently working in health and fitness settings. Results: Latent profile analysis identified a 3-profile model: (1) most need-supportive and least controlling (NS+; n = 225), (2) less need-supportive and slightly controlling (NS−; n = 42), and (3) most controlling and slightly need-supportive (mixed; n = 99). Professionals working less than 20 hours per week, more experienced, and female were more likely to integrate NS+, which was also associated with higher levels of work-related need satisfaction and clients’ perceived self-determination, and lower levels of job pressures and need-frustration. Conversely, NS− displayed the most maladaptive pattern of associations. Conclusions: The present findings highlight the importance of analyzing the correlates of different professional profiles, namely to help health and fitness organizations to provide high-quality motivational practices within an appropriate environment both for professionals and clients.
Nicola K. Thomson, Lauren McMichan, Eilidh Macrae, Julien S. Baker, David J. Muggeridge, and Chris Easton
Modern smartphones such as the iPhone contain an integrated accelerometer, which can be used to measure body movement and estimate the volume and intensity of physical activity. Objectives: The primary objective was to assess the validity of the iPhone to measure step count and energy expenditure during laboratory-based physical activities. A further objective was to compare free-living estimates of physical activity between the iPhone and the ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer. Methods: Twenty healthy adults wore the iPhone 5S and GT3X+ in a waist-mounted pouch during bouts of treadmill walking, jogging, and other physical activities in the laboratory. Step counts were manually counted, and energy expenditure was measured using indirect calorimetry. During two weeks of free-living, participants (n = 17) continuously wore a GT3X+ attached to their waist and were provided with an iPhone 5S to use as they would their own phone. Results: During treadmill walking, iPhone (703 ± 97 steps) and GT3X+ (675 ± 133 steps) provided accurate measurements of step count compared with the criterion method (700 ± 98 steps). Compared with indirect calorimetry (8 ± 3 kcal·min−1), the iPhone (5 ± 1 kcal·min−1) underestimated energy expenditure with poor agreement. During free-living, the iPhone (7,990 ± 4,673 steps·day−1) recorded a significantly lower (p < .05) daily step count compared with the GT3X+ (9,085 ± 4,647 steps·day−1). Conclusions: The iPhone accurately estimated step count during controlled laboratory walking but recorded a significantly lower volume of physical activity compared with the GT3X+ during free-living.