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Parenting Practices Are Associated With Out-of-School Physical Activity in US Adolescents in 2014

Farhan Hiya, Jean-Paul M. Lamour, Anwar A. Khan, Robert Wood, Pura E. Rodriguez de la Vega, Grettel Castro, Juan G. Ruiz, and Noel C. Barengo

Introduction: Lack of physical activity (PA) is associated with obesity, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Parenting practices influence PA in young children. However, there is little evidence available for adolescents. We examined whether parenting practices were associated with out-of-school PA (OSPA) in US adolescents. Methods: This cross-sectional 2019 study analyzed data from the 2014 FLASHE study, a web-based, quota-sampled survey of parent–adolescent dyads. Inclusion required survey completion and parents to live with their teen (ages 12–17 y old). Physically limited adolescents were excluded. Dyads were stratified by teen age. Exposures included parental modeling, monitoring, facilitation, restriction, guided choice, and pressure. The outcomes of interest were OSPA Youth Activity Profile scores. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using adjusted logistic regressions. Results: A total of 1109 dyads were included. Guided choice increased odds of OSPA for 15- to 17-year-olds (OR = 2.12; 95% CI, 1.17–3.84). Facilitation increased odds of OSPA for 12- to 14-year-olds (OR = 2.21; 95% CI, 1.13–4.33). Monitoring decreased odds of OSPA for 15- to 17-year-olds (OR = 0.34; 95% CI, 0.20–0.57) and 12- to 14-year-olds (OR = 0.45; 95% CI, 0.27–0.74). Friend support increased odds of OSPA in 15- to 17-year-olds (OR = 4.03; 95% CI, 2.29–7.08) and 12- to 14-year-olds (OR = 3.05; 95% CI 1.69–5.51). Conclusion: Future interventions should prioritize (1) shared decision making for older teens, (2) access to PA opportunities for younger adolescents, and (3) promoting peer PA and friend support for everyone.

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What Effect Do Goal Setting Interventions Have on Physical Activity and Psychological Outcomes in Insufficiently Active Adults? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Katie R. Garstang, Patricia C. Jackman, Laura C. Healy, Simon B. Cooper, and Daniele Magistro

Background: Goal setting is commonly used for promoting physical activity (PA) among insufficiently active individuals. Previous reviews have analyzed the effects of goal setting on PA, but the purpose of this systematic review was to examine the concurrent effects of goal setting on PA and psychological outcomes in insufficiently active individuals to support interventions aiming to produce sustained PA behavior change. Methods: In this review (PROSPERO: CRD42021243970), we identified 13 studies with 1208 insufficiently active adults that reported the effects of goal-setting interventions (range 3–24 wk) on both PA and psychological outcomes (eg, self-efficacy, motivation, and affect). We used meta-analysis and narrative synthesis to analyze these effects. Results: All goals used in the included studies were specific goals. Setting specific goals had a large, positive effect on PA (g [standard mean difference] = 1.11 [P < .001]; 95% confidence interval, 0.74–1.47), but only a small, positive effect on the combined psychological outcomes (g [standard mean difference] = 0.25 [P < .001]; 95% CI, 0.10–0.40). Moderator analyses revealed that interventions that did not reward participants had a significantly greater effect on PA than interventions that did provide rewards (g = 1.30 vs 0.60, respectively, P ≤ .003). No other significant moderators were found. Conclusion: Our review offers initial insight into the long-term effects of specific goals on PA and psychological outcomes in insufficiently active adults. Further research that examines the PA and psychological effects of goal-setting interventions and investigates a wider range of goal types could develop a stronger evidence base to inform intervention for insufficiently active individuals.

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Effects of a 10-Week Integrated Curriculum Intervention on Physical Activity, Resting Blood Pressure, Motor Skills, and Well-Being in 6- to 7-Year-Olds

Michael J. Duncan, Katie Fitton Davies, Nduka Okwose, Amy E. Harwood, and Djordje G. Jakovljevic

Background: Integrated curriculum interventions have been suggested as an effective means to increase physical activity (PA) and health. The feasibility of such approaches in children living in deprivation is unknown. This study sought to pilot an integrated curriculum pedometer intervention in children living in deprivation on school-based PA, body fatness, resting blood pressure, motor skills, and well-being. Methods: Using a pilot cluster randomized intervention design, children (6–7 y old, n = 64) from 2 schools in central England undertook: (1) 10-week integrated curriculum intervention or (2) control (regular school-based activity). School-based PA, body fatness, resting blood pressure, motor skills, and well-being were assessed preintervention and postintervention. Results: For the intervention group, PA was higher on school days when children had physical education lessons or there were physically active integrated curriculum activities. Body fatness significantly decreased, and well-being and perceived physical competence increased, pre–post for the intervention group compared with the control group. Accelerometer-derived PA, motor skills, and resting blood pressure were not significantly different pre–post for intervention or control groups. Conclusions: A 10-week integrated curriculum PA intervention is feasible to conduct and can positively impact aspects of health in 6- to 7-year-old children in England.

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Green Exercise as an Opportunity to Promote Equity in Physical Activity Engagement Across Diverse Populations

Iris Lesser, Cynthia Thomson, and Melissa Lem

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Where Are Czech Adolescents Active? The Patterns of Movement and Transport Behavior in Different Active Living Domains

Michal Vorlíček, Tom Stewart, Jan Dygrýn, Lukáš Rubín, Josef Mitáš, Jaroslav Burian, Scott Duncan, Jasper Schipperijn, and Michael Pratt

To understand the environmental determinants of physical activity (PA), precise spatial localization is crucial. This cross-sectional study focuses on the spatiotemporal distribution of PA among Czech adolescents (n = 171) using Global Positioning System loggers and accelerometers. The results showed that adolescents spent most of their time in sedentary behavior, with 57.2% and 58.5% of monitored time at home and school, respectively. The park and playground had the lowest proportion of sedentary behavior but also the lowest amount of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA). However, when considering the time spent in each domain, the highest proportion of MVPA was seen in publicly accessible playgrounds (13.3% of the time). Chi-square analysis showed that the relative distribution of different PA intensities did not differ across spatial domains. Based on these results, the authors propose 2 key strategies for increasing MVPA in adolescents: Increase the time spent in activity-supportive environments, such as parks and playgrounds, and design techniques to increase MVPA at home and school settings.

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The Association Between Physical Activity and Fatigue Among Adults With Rheumatic Disease in a Nationally Representative Sample

Jordan E. Lewis, Emily H. Beattie, and Kelly R. Ylitalo

Objective: Adults with rheumatic disease (RD) experience high levels of fatigue. Regular physical activity has been shown to reduce fatigue among adults. Despite this evidence, adults with RD are more likely to be physically inactive compared with those without RD. Little information is known about the association of physical activity level and fatigue among adults with RD. This study investigated the association of physical activity level and fatigue among adults with and without RD. Methods: Adults (≥18 y) who participated in the 2018 National Health Interview Survey (unweighted n = 25,471) were included in this cross-sectional study. Physical activity and fatigue were self-reported. Statistical analyses were weighted to account for complex survey sampling design. Results: Significantly more adults with RD experience fatigue compared with adults without RD (26.19% vs 13.23%). Adults with RD who were inactive had 2.81 times (95% CI, 2.37–3.34) higher odds of experiencing fatigue compared to adults with RD who were sufficiently active, after adjusting for covariates. Conclusions: Overall, fatigue was more common among adults with RD than it was in the population without RD.

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Erratum. No or Low Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity: Focusing on the Least Active as an Additional Approach for Physical Activity Surveillance

Journal of Physical Activity and Health

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No or Low Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity: Focusing on the Least Active as an Additional Approach for Physical Activity Surveillance

Raphael H.O. Araujo, André O. Werneck, R. Glenn Weaver, Rafael M. Tassitano, Célia L. Szwarcwald, Gilmar M. Jesus, Deborah C. Malta, Javier Brazo-Sayavera, Grégore I. Mielke, Mark S. Tremblay, and Danilo R.P. Silva

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Comparison of Participation in Strength Activity Among People With and Without Disabilities: 2013–2017 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

Willie Leung, Ming-Chih Sung, Jinhyun Lee, Jaehun Jung, Nicole Fiscella, and Lu Shi

Background: The current physical activity guidelines recommend engagement in strength activities at least 2 days per week. Currently, there is a lack of literature examining strength activities among people with disabilities. The purpose of this study is to estimate and compare the prevalence of engagement in strength activities and adherence to strength activity guidelines among adults with and without disabilities in the United States. Methods: A total of 1,005,644 adults (18–80 y old) with and without disabilities from the 2013 to 2017 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were included in this secondary data analysis. Descriptive analyses were performed to describe the prevalence of strength activity behaviors of adults with and without disabilities. Logistic and Poisson regression models were performed to evaluate the relative contribution of disability status on strength activity behaviors. Results: A higher proportion of participants without disabilities (46.42%, 95% CI, 46.18–46.65) reported engaging in strength activities compared with participants with disabilities (30.68%, 95% CI, 30.29–31.08; P < .01). Participants with disabilities were less likely to engage in strength activities (odds ratio = 0.51, 95% CI, 0.50–0.52; adjusted odds ratio = 0.75, 95% CI, 0.73–0.77) and meet strength activity guidelines (odds ratio = 0.56, 95% CI, 0.54–0.57; adjusted odds ratio = 0.75, 95% CI, 0.73–0.77) than participants without disabilities. Conclusion: Experiencing a disability is associated with lower engagement in strength activities; thus, it is important to identify effective and efficient approaches to promoting strength activities among people with disabilities.

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Promotion of Physical Activity by Québec Primary Care Physicians: What Has Changed in the Last Decade?

Suzanne Laberge, Véronique Gosselin, Kim Lestage, Miguel Chagnon, and Claude Guimond

Objective: This study aimed to assess the changes in the frequency of physical activity (PA) counseling and in the predictors of primary care PA promotion in Québec primary care physicians (PCPs) between 2010 and 2020. Methods: In 2010, we conducted a survey among Québec PCPs. Questions included: frequency of promoting PA to patients, perceived barriers, needs to improve PA promotion practice, frequency of PCPs’ PA practice, and sociodemographic information. In 2020, we took over the 2010 questionnaire to document the evolution of the PA promotion practice. Results: The proportion of PCPs discussing PA with their patients significantly increased (P < .05) in 2020 for the following health conditions: depression, low back pain, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cancer; it declined (P < .05) for overweight patients, those with metabolic syndrome, and in primary prevention. Collaboration with PA professionals was the major need identified, and it increased in 2020. PCPs’ own practice of PA was a predictor of PA promotion in 2010 (odds ratio = 6.679; P < .001) and in 2020 (odds ratio  = 6.679; P < .001). In both 2010 and in 2020, older or more experienced PCPs were more likely to discuss PA with their patients without diagnosed diseases than younger ones or those with less experience. Conclusions: Over the last 10 years, there has been a significant increase in PCPs promoting PA in Québec; however, it has been mainly oriented toward secondary prevention. It is concerning that PA counseling in primary prevention has declined, notably among younger PCPs. The stronger claim for closer collaboration with kinesiologists suggests that PCPs are in favor of an interprofessional strategy, namely collaboration with PA specialists.