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Changes in Physical Activity Associated With a Multicomponent Weight-Loss Randomized Controlled Trial for Youth With Intellectual Disabilities

Richard K. Fleming, Misha Eliasziw, Gretchen A. Dittrich, Carol Curtin, Melissa Maslin, Aviva Must, and Linda G. Bandini

Youth with intellectual disabilities engage in low levels of physical activity (PA). An aim of this family-based weight-loss behavioral intervention (FBBI) trial was to increase and sustain PA in these youth. Accelerometry data were available from 21 individuals with intellectual disabilities, age 14–22 years. Each completed the 6-month FBBI, after which 10 completed a 6-month maintenance intervention (FBBI-M), and 11 received no further intervention (FBBI-C). Twenty participated in a further 6-month follow-up. Accelerometry data were analyzed using linear mixed models. During FBBI, mean (SE) moderate to vigorous PA increased by 4.1 (2.5) min/day and light PA by 24.2 (13.5) min/day. Mean (SE) difference in moderate to vigorous PA between participants in FBBI-M and FBBI-C at 18 months was 14.0 (5.1) min/day (p = .005); mean (SE) difference in light PA was 47.4 (27.4) min/day (p = .08). Increasing PA through behavioral intervention is possible in youth with intellectual disabilities.

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The Effectiveness of a Sleep Optimization Program on Insomnia, Anxiety, Perceived Stress, and Emotion Dysregulation Among Football Players With Sleep Complaints

Kazem Emami, Shahram Nazari, Amy M. Bender, Rasool Norouzi Seyed Hossini, and Ebrahim Norouzi

Research has shown that elite athletes frequently experience both insufficient and poor-quality sleep. In the present study, we examined the effectiveness of a sleep optimization intervention comprised of mindfulness and sleep hygiene on insomnia severity, symptoms of anxiety, stress, and emotion dysregulation among football players with sleep complaints. Sixty male football players with sleep complaints (mean age = 29.31, SD = 3.8) were randomly assigned to the active control condition (wellness program) or the sleep optimization intervention program (mindfulness plus sleep hygiene). All participants filled out questionnaires on insomnia severity, anxiety, perceived stress, and emotion dysregulation. Three data assessments were made: one at the start of the intervention (baseline), one at the end of the intervention 8 weeks later (posttest), and one 4 weeks after the posttest (follow-up). The severity of insomnia, anxiety, stress, and emotion dysregulation decreased over time in the sleep optimization group from baseline to posttest and at the follow-up. According to the present results, a sleep optimization intervention reduced insomnia, anxiety, stress symptoms, and emotion dysregulation in football players with sleep complaints.

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The Future of Para Report Cards on Physical Activity of Children and Adolescents With Disabilities—A Global Call for Engagement, Data, and Advocacy

Mark S. Tremblay, Iryna Demchenko, John J. Reilly, Salomé Aubert, and Cindy Sit

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Trait Perfectionism, Perfectionistic Self-Presentation, and Muscle Dysmorphia in Male Exercisers: A Structural Equation Modeling Strategy

Michael C. Grugan and Kieran J. Wright

Perfectionism is positively related to muscle dysmorphia (MD). However, research on this relationship is limited by conceptual and methodological issues (e.g., conceptualizing perfectionism as unidimensional, suboptimal analytical techniques, and failing to examine whether perfectionistic self-presentation is also related to MD). To address these issues, we used a structural equation modeling strategy to examine whether dimensions of perfectionistic self-presentation add incrementally to the prediction of MD. A sample of 402 adult males who exercise regularly completed the study. We found that perfectionistic self-promotion, nondisplay of imperfection, and nondisclosure of imperfection accounted for significant increases in variance explained in MD (ΔR 2 = .126–.192). This means that clinicians and practitioners need to consider not only whether exercisers are motivated by a drive to be perfect (inherent in dimensions of trait perfectionism), but also whether they are motivated by a drive to appear perfect to others (inherent in dimensions of perfectionistic self-presentation).

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Transition (From Sport) Experiences of Former National Football League Players: An NFL-LONG Study

J.D. DeFreese, Erianne A. Weight, Landon B. Lempke, Samuel R. Walton, Zachary Yukio Kerr, Benjamin L. Brett, Avinash Chandran, Rebekah Mannix, Ruben J. Echemendia, Michael A. McCrea, William P. Meehan III, and Kevin M. Guskiewicz

Transition from professional football life has important implications for the health and well-being of former National Football League (NFL) players. The study purpose was to examine former NFL players’ experiences of transitioning from sport including factors that helped and factors that made transition difficult. This study used a convenience sample of former NFL players drawn from a larger study of health and function. Participants included 1,784 former NFL players, mean age = 52.3 ± 16.3 years, 59% White, and a discontinuation mean of 24.0 ± 15.6 years after leaving the league. Participants responded to open-ended transition questions via mail or electronic questionnaire with responses analyzed using conceptual content analysis. The most frequently reported factors that helped transition included career transition plan/options (48%) and social support (40%). Whereas, structure- (33%) and identity-related (23%) difficulties were reported as factors that made transition difficult. Findings identify areas for targeted interventions to enhance NFL player well-being during transition from sport.

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Comparison Between Movement Pattern Training and Strengthening on Kinematics and Kinetics in Patients With Chronic Hip-Related Groin Pain

Ramya Palaniappan, Michael D. Harris, Karen Steger-May, Allyn M. Bove, G. Kelley Fitzgerald, John C. Clohisy, and Marcie Harris-Hayes

The purpose of this study was to compare the preliminary effects of movement pattern training (MoveTrain) versus strengthening/flexibility (standard) treatment on hip and pelvic biomechanics in patients with chronic hip-related groin pain. This is a secondary analysis of data collected during a pilot randomized clinical trial. Thirty patients with hip pain, between the ages of 15 and 40 years, were randomized to MoveTrain or standard. Both groups completed 10 treatment sessions over 12 weeks along with a daily home exercise program. Three-dimensional motion analysis was used to collect kinematic and kinetic data of the pelvis and hip during a single-leg squat task at pretreatment and immediately posttreatment. Compared with the standard group, the MoveTrain group demonstrated smaller hip adduction angles (P = .006) and smaller hip external adduction moments (P = .008) at posttreatment. The desired changes to hip joint biomechanics, as found in this study, may require specificity in training that could allow health care professionals to better customize the rehabilitation of patients with hip pain. These findings can also be applied to the design and implementation of future clinical trials to strengthen our understanding of the long-term implications of different rehabilitation techniques for patients with hip pain.

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The Contribution of Lower-Body Kinematics to Pitching and Hitting Performance in Baseball: Utilizing the OpenBiomechanics Project

Corey S. Perrett

As markerless motion capture systems become more affordable than ever, it is becoming far easier to collect and analyze kinematic data on baseballers. To ensure this data can be used impactfully, coaches and practitioners should possess a good understanding of specific technique characteristics that are associated with enhanced performance in pitchers and hitters. This study used the open-source data provided by Driveline Baseball’s OpenBiomechanics Project to evaluate the contribution of lower-body kinematics to pitch velocity and bat speed. In addition to correlational analyses to examine the association between discrete kinematic variables and performance, statistical nonparametric mapping was used to compare slow and fast velocity groups across the entirety of pitching and hitting motions from peak knee height to ball release/contact. It was found that rotation of the trail leg and extension of the lead knee were both associated with performance in pitchers and hitters. Consequently, coaches and practitioners should ensure that individuals possess an adequate level of strength and flexibility to facilitate optimal movement of the trail hip and lead knee during pitching and hitting movements. If deficiencies exist, then training programs should be designed to address these issues and eventually bring about an improvement in performance.

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Experimentally Induced Pain Results in Reduced Activity of the Rotator Cuff Muscles in Healthy Subjects

Jennifer L. Cooper and Andrew R. Karduna

Shoulder pain is a complex, prevalent problem that is multifactorial in nature. While there are many potential causes, one common suspect is the rotator cuff musculature. The purpose of the present study was to induce pain in the supraspinatus muscle of healthy subjects and observe the resulting changes in muscle activity. Eight muscles on 23 subjects were assessed using electromyography: anterior, middle, and posterior deltoid; pectoralis major; upper trapezius; latissimus dorsi; serratus anterior; supraspinatus; and infraspinatus. It was hypothesized that the rotator cuff muscles would display reduced activity during pain, and that reductions in activity would remain after the pain had dissipated. Both of the rotator cuff muscles measured did indeed display reduced activity in a majority of the dynamic, isometric, and maximal contractions. Many of those reductions remained after the pain had subsided.

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High-Intensity Forward-Backward Plyometrics After the Warm-Up Entail Better Sprint and Change-of-Direction Performance Than Low-Intensity Side-to-Side Plyometrics

Karim Ben Ayed, Raouf Hammami, Javier Gene-Morales, Amira Ajailia, Hanen Werfelli, Haithem Rebai, Pablo Jiménez-Martínez, Jorge Flandez, and Juan C. Colado

This study aimed to determine the acute effects of high-intensity forward-backward and low-intensity side-to-side plyometric jumps performed following the warm-up on sprint (5, 10, and 15 m) and change-of-direction (COD) (T-half test and repeated T-half tests) performance in youth volleyball players. After a familiarization week, 30 male volleyball players (age = 12.04 ± 1.03 years) performed three randomized conditions (no-plyometrics, high-intensity plyometrics, and low-intensity plyometrics) in three sessions. In a within-subject design, three sets of six repetitions of forward-backward 30-cm hurdle jumps (high-intensity) and side-to-side 20-cm hurdle jumps (low-intensity) were completed. Sprint and COD were tested after each of the conditions with a 2-min rest. A significant effect of the plyometric condition was observed on sprint (p < .001, η p 2 range: .56–.70) and COD (p < .01, η p 2 = .24 ), but not on repeated COD. More specifically, the high-intensity plyometric condition exhibited significantly better results compared with the low-intensity plyometric (Cohen’s d range: 0.73–1.21) and control conditions (Cohen’s d range: 0.91–2.21). Due to the importance of speed and COD in volleyball, these results suggest that young volleyball players may benefit from high-intensity forward-backward plyometric protocols following the warm-up to improve subsequent performance.

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The Influence of a Warm-Up on Vigilance in University Students

Francisco Tomás González-Fernández, Alfonso Castillo-Rodriguez, Sixto González-Víllora, and David Hortigüela-Alcalá

The present study aimed to analyze the effects of conducting a warm-up (WC) or not (WWC) on students of the Science Degree in Physical Activity and Sport before starting a practical class. Thirty-two students of the Science Degree in Physical Activity and Sport (age: 22.38 ± 1.81 years; height: 176.09 ± 8.52 cm; weight: 22.38 ± 1.81 kg; body fat: 25.17 ± 3.20%) participated in a counterbalanced cross-sectional study in which three conditions were tested: (a) basal lineal, (b) WC, and (c) WWC. Participants recorded longer times (worse performance) in the Illinois dribbling test (basal lineal condition [20.17 ± 1.35], WWC [20.13 ± 1.37], and WC [19.32 ± 1.35]) and the Psychomotor Vigilance Task test (basal lineal condition [397.88 ± 75.98 ms]; WWC [412.19 ± 91.39 ms], and WC [368.53 ± 68.65 ms]). The warm-up prior to physical activity classes had positive effects on vigilance linked to executive functioning, and physical performance. In this sense, more research on different types of warm-up may be in order to contrast them with each other, as well as to carry out attention measurements according to the content to be imparted after the warm-ups. The present study represents a big opportunity for all physical education teachers due to warm-up is a crucial aspect that occurs in all practical sessions, also linked to the attention processes and motivational factors of the students.