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Creativity Is Contextual: A Narrative Review of Motor Creativity Tests From an Ecological Perspective

Yi-Shin Lee, Pierpaolo Iodice, and John Komar

This narrative review seeks to compare the various ways in which motor creativity has been measured and to critically evaluate those methods within the context of our contemporary understanding of motor creativity. Eligible studies included those of any study design, experimental or observational, as long as motor creativity was measured. Three databases (i.e., PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect) were searched from the earliest possible start dates to December 2021. No risk of bias assessment was performed as the study outcomes were not the focus of the review. After screening for eligibility, 23 articles were included for review, all having measured motor creativity. Of the 23 articles, 16 measured generic motor creativity, while the remaining seven measured task-specific motor creativity. Furthermore, 16 of the studies tested motor creativity with largely static environmental constraints, while the remaining seven were conducted with dynamic environmental constraints. Using a contemporary understanding of motor creativity, most motor creativity tests presently do not possess sufficient task specificity and environmental dynamism, which may not provide an appropriate context for the emergence of creative motor action.

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Effects of 4 Weeks of Variability Training on Forehand Approach Precision and Velocity in Recreational Tennis Players

Celia Negro, Ernest Baiget, Joshua Colomar, and Juan Pedro Fuentes-García

This study aims to analyze the effects of a training program based on practice variability on the speed and accuracy of the tennis forehand approach to the net shot. The study sample consisted of 35 players of both genders, 22 men and 13 women (age 44 ± 10.9 years, height 1.73 ± 0.8 cm, and weight 74.7 ± 8.4 kg). Players were randomly distributed into two groups (control group = 18 and experimental group = 17). Both training groups worked a total volume of 4 weeks, seven sessions, and 15 min per session of forehand approach shot. Control group performed traditional training while experimental group trained with variability using wristband weights. The data obtained showed a large Group × Time interaction in the accuracy of the forehand approach shot, F(1, 16) = 28.034, p < .001, η2 = .637. Only the experimental group increased significantly in the accuracy after the program (51.4%, effect size = 1.3, p < .001), while no changes were achieved regarding hitting speed (1.2%, effect size  = 0.12, p = .62). The control group did not improve in any of the tested variables. These results indicate that variability of training using wrist weights is a valid option to improve forehand approach shot accuracy in recreational-level players. Although stroke speed was not increased, this type of training may be interesting as accuracy and technical control is commonly the main goal of training at this level.

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Effects of Mental Fatigue Induced by Stroop Task and by Social Media Use on Resistance Training Performance, Movement Velocity, Perceived Exertion, and Repetitions in Reserve: A Randomized and Double-Blind Crossover Trial

Carlos Alix-Fages, Henar González-Cano, Eneko Baz-Valle, and Carlos Balsalobre-Fernández

This study aimed to explore the effects of mental fatigue (MF) induced by an incongruent Stroop task (ST) and by using social media (SM) compared to watching a documentary (control) on dynamic resistance training. Twenty-one resistance-trained males attended three identical experimental sessions with the only difference of the randomized cognitive task (ST, SM, or control). Each session consisted of (a) baseline MF and motivation visual analogue scale responses, (b) cognitive task, (c) postvisual analogue scale responses, (d) warm-up, and (e) resistance training based on three sets of bench press at 65% of one-repetition maximum till concentric failure. Number of repetitions, ratings of perceived exertion, mean velocity of repetitions, and three repetitions in reserve estimated by subjects were recorded for each set. Both ST (p < .001) and SM (p = .010) effectively induced MF, but only ST impaired the number of repetitions performed in Set 2 (p = .036) and generated higher-than-normal levels of ratings of perceived exertion even reaching significant differences compared to SM in Set 1 (p = .005). However, SM also affected neuromuscular performance by impairing movement velocity in Set 1 (p = .003). The ability of estimating three repetitions in reserve or motivation was not affected by any condition (p range = .362–.979). MF induced by ST impaired the number of repetitions performed, what seems to be mediated by higher-than-normal levels of ratings of perceived exertion. Besides, SM also impaired the ability to apply force against 65% of one-repetition maximum measured by movement velocity.

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Mental Fatigue From Smartphone Use or Stroop Task Does Not Affect Bench Press Force–Velocity Profile, One-Repetition Maximum, or Vertical Jump Performance

Carlos Alix-Fages, Eneko Baz-Valle, Henar González-Cano, Pablo Jiménez-Martínez, and Carlos Balsalobre-Fernández

The aim of this study was to explore the effects of mental fatigue from smartphone use and Stroop task on bench press force–velocity (F-V) profile, one-repetition maximum (1RM), and countermovement jump (CMJ) performance. Twenty-five trained subjects (age = 25.8 ± 5.7 years) completed three sessions separated by 1 week following a randomized double-blinded crossover design. Each session consisted of F-V relationship, 1RM, and CMJ measurements after performing 30 min of control, social media, or Stroop task. Perceived mental fatigue and motivation were recorded. Mental fatigue, motivation, CMJ height, bench press 1RM, and F-V profile variables (maximal force, maximal velocity, and maximal power) were compared between interventions. Significant differences were found for mental fatigue between interventions (p ≤ .001). Both ST (p ≤ .001) and SM (p = .007) induced higher mental fatigue than control. However, no significant differences between interventions were observed for any other variable (p = .056–.723). The magnitude of the differences between interventions ranged from negligible to small (effect sizes ≤ 0.24). These results suggest that although both ST and SM were effective to induce mental fatigue, neither ST nor SM affected CMJ performance, bench press 1RM, or any variable of the F-V profile compared with the control task.

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Volume 27 (2023): Issue 2 (Apr 2023)

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Age-Related Changes in Plantar Sensation and Ankle Proprioception in Adolescents to Older Adults

Xiaoyue Hu, Ziwei Zeng, Meihua Tang, and Lin Wang

Background: Plantar sensation and ankle proprioception occur in a stage-like variance across the life span. However, changes in adolescents, young adults, middle-aged adults, and older adults remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences of plantar sensation and ankle proprioception in adolescents to older adults. Methods: A total of 212 participants were recruited in the study and were divided into four groups, including adolescents (n = 46), young adults (n = 55), middle-aged adults (n = 47), and older adults (n = 54). Plantar tactile sensitivity/tactile acuity/vibration threshold and ankle movement threshold/joint position sense/force sense were assessed in all groups. The Kruskal–Wallis H test was used to analyze the differences in Semmes–Weinstein monofilaments between different age groups in different plantar positions. One-way analysis of variance was used to determine differences in foot vibration threshold, two-point discrimination, and ankle proprioception between different age groups. Results: Significant differences were found in the Semmes–Weinstein monofilament test (p < .001), the two-point discrimination test (p < .05), and the vibration threshold test (p < .05) in the six tested plantar positions among adolescents, young adults, middle-aged adults, and older adults. For ankle proprioception, significant differences were found in movement thresholds in ankle plantar flexion (p = .01), ankle dorsiflexion (p < .001), ankle inversion (p < .001), and ankle eversion (p < .001), as well as relative absolute errors in the ankle force senses of ankle plantar flexion (p = .02) and ankle dorsiflexion (p = .02) across the four age groups. Conclusion: Plantar sensation and ankle proprioception were sensitive in adolescents and young adults than in middle-aged adults and older adults.

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A Hurdle-Based Learning Design Effect on Locomotion Pattern and Hurdle Clearance Kinematic Reorganization

Flora Panteli, Apostolos Theodorou, and Athanasia Smirniotou

The study assessed the manifestation of a regulated locomotion pattern while clearing the first two hurdles during running. In addition, the effect of a hurdles’ learning design, using specific activities and manipulated task constraints, on regulation strategies and kinematic reorganization was examined. Pre- and posttests were conducted. Twenty-four young athletes were randomly assigned into an experimental and a control group, and performed 18 training sessions, consisting of a hurdle-based intervention for experimental participants and a more generalized athletics training for control participants. Different footfall variability curves were recorded, suggesting that young athletes regulated locomotion pattern to clear the hurdles according to their needs. Task-specific training contributed to lower values of variability for the entire approach run and to functional movement reorganization, affording learners to take-off further from the hurdle with a higher horizontal velocity, leading to a more flat hurdle clearance stride and to a significant hurdle running performance improvement.

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Strategies for Controlling a Whole-Body Task With Uncertain Initial Conditions: Application to the Upstart on Bars

Michael J. Hiley and Maurice R. Yeadon

The upstart is commonly used on bars in artistic gymnastics following a release and regrasp skill, where the gymnast will perform a flighted element before catching the bar. The variability of the flighted element leads to varying initial conditions prior to the upstart. The aim of the study was to understand how technique can be manipulated in order to ensure success at the task despite this variability. More specifically, the study aimed to quantify the ranges of initial angular velocity a gymnast could cope with in an upstart using (a) a fixed timing technique, (b) with one additional parameter to modify timings as a function of initial angular velocity, and (c) a further additional parameter to extend the range. Relationships were established, using computer simulation modeling, between the movement pattern parameters, which defined the technique, and the initial angular velocity of the upstart. A two-parameter relationship outperformed both the one-parameter relationship and the fixed timing solution in terms of the range of initial angular velocities the model could cope with. One of the two parameters governed the time by which the initiation of the shoulder extension should be reduced as a function of increased initial angular velocity, and the other parameter performed the same function for the remaining timing parameters at the hip and shoulder. The present study suggests that gymnasts, and, therefore, humans, may be able to modify movement patterns to cope with uncertain initial conditions using a relatively small number of parameters.

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Altered Trunk Position Sense and Its Relationship With Spinal Posture and Spinal Mobility in Patients With Parkinson’s Disease

Mustafa Ertuğrul Yaşa, Ali Rıza Sonkaya, Buse Korkmaz, Özge Çoban, and Necmiye Ün Yıldırım

Introduction: Proprioception is significantly affected by dysfunction of the basal ganglia, which play an important role in sensorimotor integration. Parkinson’s disease (PD), which is characterized by progressive loss of the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra, leads to a variety of motor and nonmotor symptoms throughout the course of the disease. The aim of this study was to determine trunk position sense and to investigate its relationship with spinal posture and spinal mobility in patients with PD. Methods: The study included 35 patients with PD and 35 age-matched control subjects. Trunk position sense was determined with “trunk reposition errors.” A spinal mouse was used to assess spinal posture and spinal mobility. Results: According to the Hoehn–Yahr rating scale, the majority of the patients were in Stage 1 (68.6%). Trunk position sense was found to be significantly decreased in patients with PD compared with the control group (p < .001) but was not correlated with spinal posture and spinal mobility in patients with PD (p > .05). Conclusions: This study revealed that trunk position sense was impaired in PD from the early stages of the disease. However, neither spinal posture nor spinal mobility was associated with decreased trunk proprioception. Further research into these relationships in the late stages of PD is needed.

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Motor-Evoked Potentials for Early Individual Elements of an Action Sequence During Planning Reflect Parallel Activation Processes

Lawrence P. Behmer Jr., Mathew J.C. Crump, and Kelly J. Jantzen

Several computational models make predictions about the activation states of individual elements of an action sequence during planning and execution; however, the neural mechanisms of action planning are still poorly understood. Simple chaining models predict that only the first response in an action sequence should be active during planning. Conversely, some parallel activation models suggest that during planning, a serial inhibition process places the individual elements of the action into a serial order across a winner-takes-all competitive choice gradient in which earlier responses are more active, and hence likely to be selected for execution compared with later responses. We triggered transcranial magnetic stimulation pulses at 200 or 400 ms after the onset of a five-letter word, in which all but one response was planned and typed with the left hand, except for a single letter which required a right index finger response exclusively at one of five serial positions. We measured the resulting motor-evoked potentials at the right index finger as a marker for the activation state of that planned response. We observed no difference in motor-evoked potential amplitude across any serial position when a right index finger response was planned at 200 ms after the onset of the word; however, we observed a graded pattern of activation at 400 ms, with earlier positions that required a right index finger response showing greater motor-evoked potentials amplitude compared with later positions. These findings provide empirical support for competitive queuing computational models of action planning.