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Bobby Neudorf, Crystal Hughes, Courtney Ellis, Richard Neudorf, Zach Weston, and Laura Middleton

Osteoarthritis is the most common condition to co-occur with other chronic health conditions and a broad exercise program on management of chronic conditions may be suitable for this group. This study evaluated the 12-week YMCA Move for Health exercise program among adults with osteoarthritis or with/at risk of chronic health conditions using a mixed-methods study design based on the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. Participants (n = 66) completed the exercise program at the YMCAs in Cambridge, Kitchener, and Waterloo. Assessments included physical function, health-related quality of life, symptoms of arthritis, and physical activity levels and were conducted at baseline (B), postprogram (PP), and 3-month postprogram. Due to interruption by COVID-19, a subgroup of participants completed the 3-month postprogram assessments after the onset of the pandemic. At PP, participants with OA showed significant improvements in level of disability (B = 0.63 ± 0.45 and PP = 0.55 ± 0.47; p = .049), pain (B = 4.3 ± 2.5 and PP = 3.6 ± 2.4; p = .026), fatigue (B = 3.9 ± 3.1 and PP = 2.8 ± 2.6; p = .003), and several domains related to health-related quality of life. Despite interruption by the COVID-19 pandemic and poor maintenance of physical activity levels, nearly all improvements related to level of disability, symptoms of arthritis, and health-related quality of life observed at PP were maintained 3-months postprogram. The Move for Health program proved to be a feasible and effective community program for people with osteoarthritis. Additional supports may be needed to maintain physical activity levels after the program.

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Jacob J. Levy, Terrance L. Tarver, and Hannah R. Douglas

Changes in exercise behavior and negative emotional states (i.e., depression, anxiety, and stress) in combat sport (e.g., boxing, wrestling, martial arts) athletes were examined the month prior to gym closures related to the COVID-19 pandemic (February 2020), and approximately 1 month following gym closures (May 2020). A total of 312 combat sport athletes from 33 different countries responded to the study solicitation. Results indicated a significant decrease in combat sport training following gym closures; however, participation in other exercise activities did not significantly change. Significant mean increases in depression, anxiety, and stress were found following combat gym closures. Regression analyses revealed that number of hours of participants participated in combat sport training added significant incremental variance explained in depressive and stress symptoms above and beyond that accounted for by sex differences, preexisting conditions, and training level. Practical implications regarding losses to preferred exercise activities are discussed.

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Megan Drew, Trent A. Petrie, and Tess Palmateer

College student athletes face unique, sport-related stressors that may lead to, or exacerbate, mental health (MH) concerns and symptoms. Although the National Collegiate Athletic Association has identified MH screening as a best practice, minimal data exist regarding contemporary screening practices. We explored National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I (DI), Division II (DII), and Division III (DIII) athletic departments’ current MH screening practices (N = 264). Compared with DII/DIII (53%), a greater percentage of Division I (89%) conducted formal MH screening. At DII/DIII institutions, athletic trainers were more likely to both administer and review screeners than any other sports medicine professional; sport psychologists primarily oversaw these tasks at DI schools. DI, compared with DII/DIII, institutions were more likely to have had a student athlete attempt suicide (62% vs. 40%) and participate in inpatient treatment (69% vs. 43%). There is a clear need for the National Collegiate Athletic Association to continue to promote policies that support MH screening and to create mechanisms in which it can monitor institutional involvement.

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Zachary L. Mannes, Erin G. Ferguson, Nicole Ennis, Deborah S. Hasin, and Linda B. Cottler

Over 80% of National Football League (NFL) retirees experience daily pain. Pain acceptance is an important psychological construct implicated in the intensity of chronic pain, though these findings have not been extended to NFL retirees. Therefore, the current study examined the association between pain acceptance and pain intensity among former NFL athletes. NFL retirees (N = 90) recruited from 2018 to 2019 completed questionnaires that assessed pain, substance use, and NFL career information. Multiple linear regression examined the association between current pain acceptance and pain intensity while adjusting for other risk factors of pain. NFL retirees reported average scores of 33.31 (SD = 10.00), and 2.18 (SD = 2.40) on measures of pain acceptance and pain intensity, respectively. After covariate adjustment, greater pain acceptance (β = −0.538, p < .001) was associated with lower pain intensity. These findings can further inform the behavioral and mental health care of retired NFL athletes.

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Ehsan Sinaei, Debra J. Rose, Samira Javadpour, and Amin Kordi Yoosefinejad

Recently, a short form of the Fullerton Advanced Balance (SF-FAB) scale was reported as a good predictor of falls in older adults. However, we found no evidence regarding its reliability in non-American older adults. Therefore, we aimed to analyze the reliability and homogeneity of the SF-FAB scale to measure postural balance in Iranian older adults. Eighty-five community-dwelling older adults (70.75 ± 4.97 years) performed the SF-FAB test on two occasions 1 week apart. In both instances, four raters assessed the performance on the test. The SF-FAB scale (mean total score: 12.46 ± 3.53) revealed acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = .77), excellent intrarater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = .94–.99), and excellent interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = .92–.99). The overall prediction success rate was 83.5% with correctly classifying 95.6% of nonfallers and 35.3% of fallers. The SF-FAB scale can provide a quick screen of balance status in older adults to trigger referral to clinicians for a more comprehensive assessment.

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Alexandra V. Carroll, Shelby J. Foote, Christopher K. Wirth, Sheri J. Brock, and Danielle D. Wadsworth

Physical fitness is associated with decreased weight in children, which helps improve youth obesity rates. Family programs can provide practical approaches to improving physical fitness for children. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of a family-based fitness intervention on changes in body composition, fitness status, and perceptions of obese children. Families attended exercise and education sessions for 60–90 min once per week for 10 weeks. Participants consisted of 10 children who participated in semi-structured interviews, body composition, and fitness assessments at pre- and posttest. Following the intervention, results showed that children had a significant increase in sit-ups (p = .03, effect size = 0.79), lean mass (p < .001, Cohen’s d = 1.95), and bone mineral content (p < .001, Cohen’s d = 0.46). Using thematic analysis, four main themes emerged from the pre- and postintervention interviews: an increase in after-school and weekend intentional physical fitness, rules regarding sedentary behavior and screen time, more prevalent physical fitness reinforcements, and a shift in perception of exercise. Results from this study indicate a family-based intervention had an influence on children’s appreciation for and engagement in physical fitness, as well as healthy body composition and fitness outcomes.

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Kimberly A. Clevenger, Jan Christian Brønd, Daniel Arvidsson, Alexander H.K. Montoye, Kelly A. Mackintosh, Melitta A. McNarry, and Karin A. Pfeiffer

Background: ActiGraph is a commonly used, research-grade accelerometer brand, but there is little information regarding intermonitor comparability of newer models. In addition, while sampling rate has been shown to influence accelerometer metrics, its influence on measures of free-living physical activity has not been directly studied. Purpose: To examine differences in physical activity metrics due to intermonitor variability and chosen sampling rate. Methods: Adults (n = 20) wore two hip-worn ActiGraph wGT3X-BT monitors for 1 week, with one accelerometer sampling at 30 Hz and the other at 100 Hz, which was downsampled to 30 Hz. Activity intensity was classified using vector magnitude, Euclidean Norm Minus One (ENMO), and mean amplitude deviation (MAD) cut points. Equivalence testing compared outcomes. Results: There was a lack of intermonitor equivalence for ENMO, time in sedentary/light- or moderate-intensity activity according to ENMO cut points, and time in moderate-intensity activity according to MAD cut points. Between sampling rates, differences existed for time in moderate-intensity activity according to vector magnitude, ENMO, and MAD cut points, and time in sedentary/light-intensity activity according to ENMO cut points. While mean differences were small (0.1–1.7 percentage points), this would equate to differences in moderate-to vigorous-intensity activity over a 10-hr wear day of 3.6 (MAD) to 10.8 (ENMO) min/day for intermonitor comparisons or 3.6 (vector magnitude) to 5.4 (ENMO) min/day for sampling rate. Conclusions: Epoch-level intermonitor differences were larger than differences due to sampling rate, but both may impact outcomes such as time spent in each activity intensity. ENMO was the least comparable metric between monitors or sampling rates.

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Nadia Cristina Valentini, Glauber Carvalho Nobre, Larissa Wagner Zanella, Keila G. Pereira, Maicon Rodrigues Albuquerque, and Mary Elizabeth Rudisill

Background: The Test of Gross Motor Development–3 (TGMD-3) is used to assess locomotor (LOCS) and ball (BS) skills in children. This test provides relevant information for evaluating learning and determining teaching efficacy. However, conducting and coding the test is time consuming. A screening form may improve its usage in specific settings and populations. Purpose: This study aimed to develop a screening form for the TGMD-3-SF and examine its validity and reliability. Method: We assessed 1,192 3-to-10-year-old children; 772 children completed the TGMD-3 and 420 the TGMD-3-SF; 114 children were retested for temporal stability and 300 for criterion validity. Results: We found appropriate results for the two-factors model, LOCS (gallop, hop, and skip) and BS (one-hand strike, kick, and overhand throw), RMSEA = .025, comparative-fit index = .99, and Tukey–Lewis index = .99; internal consistency (LOCS, α = .60; BS, α = .71); item validity (LOCS, r = .43, p < .001; BS, r = .47, p < .001); interrater (ICC = .86–.99), intrarater (ICC = .61–.92), test–retest (LOCS, ICC =.87; BS, ICC = .78) reliability, and concurrent validity (LOCS, r = .89, p < .01; BS, r = .90, p < .001). Conclusions: The TGMD-3-SF is valid and reliable for assessing children’s gross motor development.

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Siobhan K. Fitzpatrick and Janine V. Olthuis

American student-athletes (SAs) are at heightened risk for hazardous alcohol consumption compared with their nonathlete peers. However, little is known about this risk or the influence of psychosocial predictors on drinking behavior among Canadian SAs. This study compared rates of alcohol use across Canadian SAs and nonathletes and investigated whether the use of athlete-specific psychosocial predictors can improve the prediction of alcohol use outcomes in SAs. Participants (179 varsity athletes and 366 nonathletes) completed anonymous self-report questionnaires. Results suggest that Canadian athletes are at a heightened risk for experiencing alcohol-related problems compared with nonathletes, with general psychosocial predictors explaining the majority of variance in SA alcohol use. However, and quite notably, athlete-specific positive reinforcement motives predicted SA binge drinking. This research provides some of the first evidence of drinking-related problems among Canadian SAs and supports the potential use of preventative efforts to help SAs develop safe strategies for alcohol use.

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Carrie B. Scherzer, Jeremy Trenchuk, Meaghan Peters, and Robert Mazury

Athletes can be at elevated risk for developing eating disorders, the effects of which can be devastating. Few researchers have examined the influence of a predisposition toward an eating disorder on athletic injury. Exercise dependence might bridge the gap toward understanding this relationship. This study sought to examine the relationship between predisposition toward an eating disorder and exercise dependence and looked at both as predictors of athletic injury. College students (n = 132) completed the Eating Disorders Inventory and the Exercise Dependence Questionnaire, as well as provided demographic, activity, and injury information. Subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory and Exercise Dependence Questionnaire were significant predictors of having at least one athletic injury in the preceding year. These findings suggest that both predisposition toward an eating disorder and exercise dependence may be contributing factors to injury.