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Melinda A. Solmon

Scholarship related to physical education and sport pedagogy is rigorous and should be central to the academic discipline of kinesiology. The goal of this article is to situate physical education and sport pedagogy as an applied field in kinesiology, grounded in the assumption that physical education, as the professional or technical application of the broader academic discipline, is of critical importance to the success of kinesiology. A brief overview of the history of research on teaching physical education is followed by an overview of the streams of research that have evolved. Major tenets of research on effective teaching and curricular reform are discussed. The status of physical education teacher education and school physical education programs is considered, and a rationale for a broader view of pedagogy that has the potential not only to promote physical education and sport pedagogy but also to enrich the academic discipline is offered.

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Ruben Brondeel, Yan Kestens, Javad Rahimipour Anaraki, Kevin Stanley, Benoit Thierry, and Daniel Fuller

Background: Closed-source software for processing and analyzing accelerometer data provides little to no information about the algorithms used to transform acceleration data into physical activity indicators. Recently, an algorithm was developed in MATLAB that replicates the frequently used proprietary ActiLife activity counts. The aim of this software profile was (a) to translate the MATLAB algorithm into R and Python and (b) to test the accuracy of the algorithm on free-living data. Methods: As part of the INTErventions, Research, and Action in Cities Team, data were collected from 86 participants in Victoria (Canada). The participants were asked to wear an integrated global positioning system and accelerometer sensor (SenseDoc) for 10 days on the right hip. Raw accelerometer data were processed in ActiLife, MATLAB, R, and Python and compared using Pearson correlation, interclass correlation, and visual inspection. Results: Data were collected for a combined 749 valid days (>10 hr wear time). MATLAB, Python, and R counts per minute on the vertical axis had Pearson correlations with the ActiLife counts per minute of .998, .998, and .999, respectively. All three algorithms overestimated ActiLife counts per minute, some by up to 2.8%. Conclusions: A MATLAB algorithm for deriving ActiLife counts was implemented in R and Python. The different implementations provide similar results to ActiLife counts produced in the closed source software and can, for all practical purposes, be used interchangeably. This opens up possibilities to comparing studies using similar accelerometers from different suppliers, and to using free, open-source software.

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Billy C.L. So, Sze C. Kwok, and Paul H. Lee

Background: Aerobic exercise improves sleep for people who have difficulty in sleeping soundly, but most research to date has focused on land-based exercise. There has been only very limited research into the effect of aquatic exercise on people with chronic musculoskeletal (MSK) pain. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of a 6-week aquatic exercise program on sleep efficiency among adults with chronic MSK pain. Methods: A total of 30 adults with chronic MSK pain were recruited by convenience sampling and assigned into intervention and control groups by a trained research assistant. Their sleep efficiency, sleep quality, activity level, stress level, and pain level were measured with ActiGraph GT3X accelerometer before and after the intervention group completed a 6-week, biweekly program of aquatic exercise. Results: Following intervention, the intervention group had significantly longer total true sleep time (by 27.6 min, P = .006); greater sleep efficiency (+3.01%, P = .005); and less pain (−1.33/10, P = .026). The control group had significantly shorter total true sleep time by 5.8 minutes (P = .036) while changes in the other outcomes were not significant. Conclusions: Six weeks of moderate-intensity aquatic exercise may improve sleep efficiency and reduce pain for persons suffering chronic MSK pain.

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Jane A. Kent and Kate L. Hayes

The field of exercise physiology has enjoyed tremendous growth in the past 40 years. With its foundations in the natural sciences, it is an interdisciplinary field that is highly relevant to human performance and health. The focus of this review is on highlighting new approaches, knowledge, and opportunities that have emerged in exercise physiology over the last four decades. Key among these is the adoption of advanced technologies by exercise physiologists to address fundamental research questions, and the expansion of research topics to range from molecular to organismal, and population scales in order to clarify the underlying mechanisms and impact of physiological responses to exercise in health and disease. Collectively, these advances have ensured the position of the field as a partner in generating new knowledge across many scientific and health disciplines.

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Diane L. Gill, Erin J. Reifsteck, and Leilani Madrigal

As part of the 40th anniversary of the publication of Brooks’s (1981) Perspectives on the Academic Discipline of Physical Education, the authors offer an update on the Sport Psychology chapter, including key developments, topics, and issues in sport and exercise psychology. They begin with an overview of the 1981 chapter and state of sport psychology as described during that time. Then, in the main part of the article, they go through each of the main topics as presented in the 1981 chapter—highlighting what’s gone, what’s stayed, what’s changed, and what’s new. In the final section, they discuss the current state of sport and exercise psychology and end with their aspirations for sport and exercise psychology.

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Tiago R. de Lima, David A. González-Chica, Eleonora D’Orsi, Xuemei Sui, and Diego A.S. Silva

Background: The authors aimed to identify the effect of adherence to healthy lifestyle habits on muscle strength (MS) according to a distinct health status. Methods: Longitudinal analysis using data from 2 population-based cohorts in Brazil (EpiFloripa adult, n = 862, 38.8 [11.4] y—6 y of follow-up length; EpiFloripa Aging, n = 1197, 69.7 [7.1] y—5 y of follow-up length). MS was assessed by handgrip strength (kgf). Information assessed by questionnaire regarding adequate physical activity levels, regular consumption of fruit and vegetables, low alcohol consumption, and nonsmoking habits were analyzed in the relationship with MS according to the health status. The participants were grouped into 3 health status categories: (1) with cardiovascular disease (CVD); (2) at risk of CVD (abdominal obesity or overweight/obesity, high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemia); and (3) healthy individuals (without CVD and risk of CVD). Results: Simultaneous adherence of 4 healthy lifestyle habits was directly associated with MS among healthy individuals (β = 10.0, 95% CI, 2.0–18.0, SE = 4.0), at risk of CVD (β = 5.5, 95% CI, 0.3–12.6, SE = 3.6), and those with CVD (β = 11.4, 95% CI, 5.8–16.7, SE = 2.8). Conclusions: Adopting a healthy lifestyle can contribute to increased MS in adults and older adults, regardless of health status.

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Mark L. Latash

Motor control is a young and aspiring field of natural science. Over the past 40 years, it has become an established field of study with several important theoretical developments, including the equilibrium-point hypothesis and its more recent version known as the control with referent spatial coordinates, the principle of abundance, the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis, and the concept of dynamic neural field as the means of task formulation. Important experimental advances have included the exploration of the notion of synergies, the links between descending signals from the brain and referent coordinates of the effectors, and applications of motor control principles to analysis of disordered movements. Further maturation of motor control requires focusing on theory-driven studies. It promises fruitful applications to applied fields such as movement disorders and rehabilitation.

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Sarah K. Keadle, Eduardo E. Bustamante, and Matthew P. Buman

Over the past 40 years, physical activity (PA) and public health has been established as a field of study. A robust evidence base has emerged demonstrating that participation in recommended amounts of PA results in a wide array of physical and mental health benefits. This led to the establishment of federal and global PA guidelines and surveillance programs. Strong evidence supports the efficacy of individual-level (e.g., goal setting) and environmental (e.g., policies) interventions to promote PA. There has also been progress in establishing a skilled and diverse workforce to execute the work of PA and public health. Looking forward, major challenges include stemming the obesity and chronic disease epidemics, addressing health inequities, and diversifying the workforce. Given the known benefits of PA and the availability of evidence-based interventions, efforts now must focus on implementing this knowledge to improve population health and reduce inequities through PA.

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Eric T. Hyde, John D. Omura, Tiffany J. Chen, David R. Brown, Janet E. Fulton, and Susan A. Carlson

The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, second edition recommends that older adults do multicomponent physical activity, which includes balance training in addition to aerobic and muscle-strengthening activities. The authors estimated the prevalence of U.S. older adults (age ≥65 years) who do balance activities and meet the aerobic and muscle-strengthening physical activity guidelines. The authors analyzed data on 1,012 respondents to the 2019 FallStyles survey, a nationwide web-based panel survey. Approximately four in 10 respondents (40.7%) reported doing balance activities on ≥1 day/week, 34.0% on ≥2 days/week, and 25.3% on ≥3 days/week. Prevalence differed by sex, education level, income level, census region, body mass index category, and meeting the aerobic and/or muscle-strengthening guidelines. The combined prevalence of participation in balance activities and meeting aerobic and muscle-strengthening guidelines ranged from 12.0% for ≥3 days/week to 15.8% for ≥1 day/week. Opportunities exist to introduce and increase participation in balance and multicomponent activities by older adults.