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Jonathan Kingsley, Nyssa Hadgraft, Neville Owen, Takemi Sugiyama, David W. Dunstan, and Manoj Chandrabose

This study investigates the associations of vigorous-intensity gardening time with cardiometabolic health risk markers. This cross-sectional study (AusDiab) analyzed 2011–2012 data of 3,664 adults (55% women, mean [range], age = 59.3 [34–94] years) in Australia. Multiple linear regression models examined associations of time spent participating in vigorous gardening (0, <150 min/week, ≥150 min/week) with a clustered cardiometabolic risk (CMR) score and its components, for the whole sample and stratified by age and gender. Of participants, 61% did no vigorous gardening, 23% reported <150 min/week, and 16% reported ≥150 min/week. In the whole sample, spending ≥150 min/week in vigorous gardening was associated with lower CMR (lower CMR score, waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, and triglycerides) compared with no vigorous gardening. Stratified analyses suggested that these associations were almost exclusively observed for older adults and women. These findings suggest the public health potential of vigorous-intensity gardening in reducing CMR.

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Tsz Lun (Alan) Chu, Bailey Sommerfeld, and Tao Zhang

Building on recent research examining athlete burnout trajectories, this study implemented the developmental model of sport participation to compare emotional and physical exhaustion, reduced sense of accomplishment, and sport devaluation between age groups (specializing [aged 13–15 years] vs. investment [aged 16–18 years]) and gender (boys vs. girls) among U.S. high school athletes. Participants were 367 high school athletes (M = 15.53; 212 males; 186 specializing) across various individual and team sports who completed a survey assessing their demographic information, sport backgrounds, and burnout perceptions. A 2 × 2 multivariate analysis of covariance, controlling for training hours, showed greater emotional and physical exhaustion and sport devaluation in the investment than the specializing group, but no developmental differences in reduced sense of accomplishment. Contrary to our hypothesis, no gender or interaction effects were found. Findings inform interventions and future research that address the role of developmental stages and gender in athlete burnout.

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Denver M.Y. Brown, Patrick G. McPhee, Matthew Y. Kwan, and Brian W. Timmons

Background: Research has established beneficial associations between 24-hour movement guideline adherence and several health outcomes in typically developing (TD) children, but these relationships are poorly understood in children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD). This study examined (1) 24-hour movement guideline adherence, (2) the influence of disability severity, and (3) associations between guideline adherence and health outcomes of TD children and children with NDD. Methods: This cross-sectional study used data from the 2018 and 2019 cycles of the US National Survey of Children’s Health. Parental/caregiver reports of movement behaviors (physical activity, screen time, and sleep), disability severity (limitations to daily activities), and health outcomes (general health status, anxiety, and depression) were provided for 8554 children with NDD and 19,669 TD children aged 6–17 years. Results: Children with NDD had significantly lower odds of meeting each movement behavior guideline compared to TD children; these effects were most pronounced for those who experienced consistent limitations to daily activities. Meeting at least 2 guidelines significantly lowered the odds for anxiety and depression, and increased the odds for better general health for children with NDD. Discussion: These findings suggest that degree of disability severity has a strong influence on adherence to 24-hour movement guidelines among children with NDD.

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Emma S. Cowley, Alyssa A. Olenick, Kelly L. McNulty, and Emma Z. Ross

This study aimed to conduct an updated exploration of the ratio of male and female participants in sport and exercise science research. Publications involving humans were examined from The European Journal of Sports Science, Medicine & Science in Sport & Exercise, The Journal of Sport Science & Medicine, The Journal of Physiology, The American Journal of Sports Medicine, and The British Journal of Sports Medicine , 2014–2020. The total number of participants, the number of male and female participants, the title, and the topic, were recorded for each publication. Data were expressed in frequencies and percentages. Chi-square analyses were used to assess the differences in frequencies in each of the journals. About 5,261 publications and 12,511,386 participants were included in the analyses. Sixty-three percentage of publications included both males and females, 31% included males only, and 6% included females only (p < .0001). When analyzing participants included in all journals, a total of 8,253,236 (66%) were male and 4,254,445 (34%) were female (p < .0001). Females remain significantly underrepresented within sport and exercise science research. Therefore, at present most conclusions made from sport and exercise science research might only be applicable to one sex. As such, researchers and practitioners should be aware of the ongoing sex data gap within the current literature, and future research should address this.

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Dean R. Watson, Andrew P. Hill, and Daniel J. Madigan

Attitudes toward help-seeking will contribute to whether athletes ask for support for performance and mental health issues when needed. While research outside of sport has found perfectionism is related to negative attitudes toward help-seeking, no studies have examined the relationship in sport. The authors provided the first test of whether perfectionism predicted attitudes toward both sport psychology support and mental health support. One hundred and sixty-six collegiate athletes completed measures of perfectionism and attitudes toward sport psychology support and mental health support. Multiple regression analyses revealed that perfectionistic concerns positively predicted closedness and stigma toward sport psychology support and mental health support, and negatively predicted help-seeking toward mental health support. However, perfectionistic strivings negatively predicted stigma toward sport psychology support and mental health support, and positively predicted confidence in sport psychology support and help-seeking toward mental health support. Athletes higher in perfectionistic concerns are less likely to seek support when required.

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Cuma Uz, Ebru Umay, Ibrahim Gundogdu, Hamid Amini, Fatma B. Uz, Ozlem Erol, Dilek Unalan, Fatma Y. Korkmaz, and Mohsen Akbarpour

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, restrictive measures can reduce physical activity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate predisease physical activity and current functional capacity in patients with and without the presence of pneumonia and oxygen requirement in Turkish survivors of COVID-19. Methods: Among the COVID-19 patients admitted to the hospital, 100 patients were selected. Data about predisease physical activity (by short-form International Physical Activity Questionnaire), oxygen requirement and presence of pneumonia, and current functional capacity (by the 6-min walking test) were collected. Continuous and categorical variables were compared with the Mann–Whitney U and χ 2 test, respectively (P < .05). Results: The predisease physical activity levels and current functional capacity of patients with pneumonia and oxygen requirement were significantly lower than patients without pneumonia and oxygen requirement (P < .05). However, there was no significant difference between males and females (P > 0.05). Pneumonia and oxygen requirement was more common in the older adults (P < .05). Also, a significant correlation was found between age with predisease physical activity (r = .530, P = .000) and current functional capacity (r = −.346, P = .000) and predisease physical activity level with current functional capacity (r = .523, P = .001). Conclusion: The physical activity level may be related to the severity of COVID-19 disease.

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Georgia A. Bird, Mary L. Quinton, and Jennifer Cumming

This study investigated the relationship between reappraisal and suppression with depression and mental well-being among university athletes. It was hypothesized reappraisal would associate with lower depression and greater mental well-being, whereas suppression would associate with greater depression and reduced mental well-being. Employing a cross-sectional design, 427 participants (M age = 20.18, SD = 1.52; 188 males and 239 females) completed questionnaires assessing mental health and strategy use. Hierarchical multiple regressions revealed reappraisal was positively associated, and suppression negatively associated with mental well-being, ΔR 2 = 4.8%, ΔF(2, 422) = 17.01, p ≤ .001; suppression, β = −0.08, p = .028; reappraisal, β = 0.21, p ≤ .001, but neither were associated with depression, ΔR 2 = 0.4%, ΔF(2, 422) = 1.33, p = .267; suppression, β = 0.06, p = .114; reappraisal, β = 0.03, p = .525. Results highlight reappraisal as correlated with mental well-being in student-athletes, and therefore, reappraisal could be beneficial for managing stress in sport. Reappraisal may implicate how well-being is promoted through sport, but future experimental research is needed to confirm causal relationships.

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Malorie Polster, Erin E. Dooley, Kate Olscamp, Katrina L. Piercy, and April Oh

Background: Dissemination of the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (Guidelines) is needed, but how individuals respond to the Guidelines is not well understood. This surveillance study describes US adults’ reported responses to and information sources for hearing about the Guidelines and explores relationships between how respondents heard about the Guidelines and their reported response(s). Methods: Data were analyzed from the population-based 2019 Health Information National Trends Survey 5 Cycle 3. Population-weighted proportions of response were calculated. Among those who had heard about the Guidelines, binary logistic regressions examined associations between the reported response(s) and the information source and number of sources reported. Results: The analytical sample included 5047 adults. Nearly 65% of US adults reported hearing about the Guidelines, and 29% reported a behavioral response (eg, increased physical activity). Hearing about the Guidelines through health professionals (adjusted odds ratio = 2.30, 95% confidence interval, 1.45–3.65) or social media (adjusted odds ratio = 1.89, 95% confidence interval, 1.20–2.96) (vs other sources) was associated with reporting increasing physical activity. Hearing from multiple sources (vs one source) was associated with reporting increasing physical activity (adjusted odds ratio = 1.97, 95% confidence interval, 1.18–3.31). Conclusion: Findings suggest dissemination of the Guidelines across multiple channels may promote greater changes in physical activity.