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Erratum. Acting on Injury: Increasing Psychological Flexibility and Adherence to Rehabilitation

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An Examination of a Dissonance-Based Body Image Promotion Intervention: A Case Study of Youth Female Soccer Players

Katherine E. Hirsch, Irene L. Muir, Krista J. Munroe-Chandler, and Todd M. Loughead

The present case study aimed to modify, implement, and evaluate a sport-specific dissonance-based body image promotion intervention for female adolescent athletes. The case included 33 female adolescent soccer players (11–14 years old) who completed the Youth-Female Athlete Body Project, a 4-week team-based intervention. The intervention was evaluated using quantitative measures gathered pre- and postintervention and qualitative responses from focus groups that were administered 1-week postintervention. The quantitative assessments examined body-ideal internalization, aesthetic and functional body image, perceived body shape, and fat talk. Significant decreases in participants’ thin-ideal and muscular-ideal internalization as well as fat talk were found postintervention. Focus groups were conducted with a subset of participants (n = 24) to gather insight into the positives and negatives of the intervention, intervention outcomes, and recommendations for future intervention delivery. Reflections from the practitioners are provided and recommendations for effective intervention implementation from practitioners’ and participants’ perspectives are discussed.

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Integrated Sport Psychology Support: A Case Study in Motor Sport

Emma Mosley, Zöe L. Wimshurst, and Emma Kavanagh

This article shares a joint reflection of three practitioners who provided specialist support to one elite motor sport athlete. The 9-month program began with the broad aim of making the driver better prepared for performance at the highest level using the practitioners’ experience. One practitioner specialized in athlete well-being and performance support, another in vision/perceptual training, and the final practitioner in heart rate variability. The practitioners developed a bespoke program of support, including vision training, slow-paced breathing, and self-awareness. Program effectiveness was determined through objective measures, such as physiological readings and subjective measures, including feedback from the driver and performance coach. Evaluation and reflections of the program suggest that the athlete successfully learned slow-paced breathing, improved functional vision, and enhanced preperformance preparation and in-race regulation. The athlete also perceived the support to be beneficial and had the desire to develop mind–body effectiveness in the future.

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Navigating Management Dismissal and COVID-19 in a Professional Football Club: A Trainee Sport Psychologist Finds Her Way Through

Zoe A. Black and Paul McCarthy

In this case study, we report the experiences and reflections of a female trainee sport and exercise psychologist who navigated the dismissal of a management team and COVID-19 in a professional football club. The trainee delivered an educational intervention to a group of 10 players transitioning from a youth academy to the first team at a professional football club. This formed part of a larger organizational intervention to integrate sport psychology into the club. During the delivery, her mode of working changed from face to face to online support (because of the COVID-19 pandemic), and the management team, except the first author, were dismissed from their duties after lockdown. We discuss the challenges of integrating and working within an organization, experiencing the dismissal of the management team, the effect of the practitioner’s gender as a female working in a male-dominated sport, and the unrelenting football culture and how we, as practitioners, may choose to navigate it. We supplement personal reflections and notes from client work with learning logs and supervision as part of coursework components of a doctorate in sport and exercise psychology. This case study contributes to the literature by presenting and reflecting on challenges that novice practitioners might face working within a professional football organization.

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Reflect In and Speak Out: An Autoethnographic Study on Race and the Embedded Sport Psychology Practitioner

Sahen Gupta

This paper aims to present a critical experience of race for the embedded sport psychology practitioner from a non-WEIRD, migratory, Black, Asian, and minority ethnic doctoral student and trainee sport psychologist in the United Kingdom. In particular, I move from intrapersonal reflection to an interpersonal cultural analysis that (re)considers some assumptions in existing training and applied sport psychology practice. In the consequential ripples to these reflections, I evaluate and argue to modify (a) ideology of the culturally isolated practitioner, (b) self-recognition of unconscious bias and discrimination, and (c) routes to incorporate antidiscriminatory practice training in sport psychology education pathways. Using a rigorous autoethnographic approach on this novel area reveals several implications for applied practice and the development of professional philosophy. Using conversation vignettes, personal lived experience accounts on the impact of race on education and development as a practitioner are discussed in this original work. The goal is to make the invisible visible by exploring vulnerabilities in practice, client engagement, and educational training in an equal and nondiscriminatory manner.

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“Rocked by Racism”: A Confessional Tale From a Trainee Practitioner Following a Racism Scandal at an Elite Youth Soccer Academy

David Price, Christopher R.D. Wagstaff, and Alessandro Quartiroli

In this case study, we present a confessional tale that outlines the unique challenges and experiences of a trainee practitioner working in an elite youth soccer academy, during and following a racism scandal. We first locate our intersectional identities before contextualizing how the racism scandal emerged. Nested within the confessional tale is a series of critical reflections relating to the internal conflict between the trainee practitioner’s values, beliefs, and ethical obligations when working with released players who engaged in the racist behavior, confronting his Whiteness, White privileges, and experiences of White guilt and the lack of a culturally centered framework within the supervisee–supervisor relationship. While the trainee practitioner recognizes the significant work still required to become more culturally humble, we conclude by offering several applied recommendations to support others in developing a more culturally grounded practice framework.

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Stories From Mother Runners: A Case Study and Narrative Analysis of Facilitators for Competitive Running

Kerry R. McGannon and Jenny McMahon

Despite the focus on motherhood and sport participation in recent years, the motherhood and recreational sport participation nexus is not well understood. Using an instrumental case study, we explored running facilitators for competitive recreational mother runners to advance research using a novel theory (i.e., narrative inquiry). We used a dialogical narrative analysis to identify a key theme of “good mother runners: negotiating freedom and constraint.” Findings are presented using a storyteller approach in the form of three portrait characters who each tell a story of facilitators grounded in a “relational narrative” that provided freedom to run in the context of good motherhood. The features of the relational narrative are shown in three nonfiction vignettes: Susan’s story, “Running is what we do”; Tracy’s story, “Running isn’t just for me, it’s for them”; and Kay’s story, “Just go with it.” Interpretive reflections of the stories using narrative theory are offered. We conclude with practical recommendations and future research directions for mothers’ competitive running participation.

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The Transition of an Applied Sport Psychology Training Program at a U.S. University From a Face-to-Face to a Virtual Mode: An Autoethnographic Case Study

Thomas W. Gretton, Gabriela I. Caviedes, Megan Buning, Kristin Webster, and David W. Eccles

We studied the transition of an applied sport psychology training program at a public U.S. university from a face-to-face mode to a virtual mode in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to identify challenges of this transition for supervisors and student consultants and best practices for virtual consultancy. This autoethnographic case study involved interviews with three program supervisors, ten student consultants, and one college coach. We also examined researcher observations and lived experiences during the transition. A blended ethnographic and codebook thematic analysis was undertaken. We identified two superordinate challenges: (a) program challenges and (b) consulting challenges. We also identified three superordinate best practices: (a) supervisor best practices, (b) student consultant best practices, and (c) best practices in sport psychology delivery. These findings can usefully inform efforts by individual consultants and applied programs at universities to adopt virtual modes of consultancy.

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Using a Person-Centered Approach to Facilitate a Male Amateur Distance Runner’s Personal Growth

Joe R. Davis and Paul J. McCarthy

This case study analyzes, synthesizes, and tests a person-centered approach by a trainee sport and exercise psychologist working with a male amateur distance runner. The aim of applying a person-centered approach was to enhance the athlete’s understanding of himself, enable him to make sense of his experience, and facilitate personal growth. This case study explores the client’s change process and how developing the quality of the relationship allowed him to share his true thoughts and feelings and move towards his authentic self. The trainee describes the theoretical framework that guided the consultancy; reflects on the experiences of exhibiting empathy, unconditional positive regard, and congruence; and discusses the challenges with implementing the approach. The case study reflects on and evaluates the support service, so that the practitioner could learn from this experience and enhance service delivery as he moves toward the end of his formal training.

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Virtual-Reality Training of Elite Boxers Preparing for the Tokyo 2020 Olympics During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Case Study

Thomas Romeas, Basil More-Chevalier, Mathieu Charbonneau, and François Bieuzen

The COVID-19 pandemic struck right during the Olympic preparation, leading to significant training restrictions such as noncontact practices for combat sports. This case study research describes the application of a complementary virtual-reality (VR) intervention to train elite boxers preparing for Tokyo 2020 during the pandemic. It also addresses the evaluation of broader visuocognitive functions in elite boxers. Six boxers were allocated to two groups: one experimental group trained on a 360° VR (360VR) temporal video-occlusion program, and one active control group trained on a VR game simulation during 11 sessions. Pre- and postevaluations of specific decision-making performance were performed on a 360VR evaluation test. Fundamental visual and visuocognitive functions were assessed at baseline. Greater on-test decision-making improvements were observed in the 360VR-trained group compared with VR game, and 360VR offered self-reported satisfactory, representative, and safe individual training opportunities for the boxers. More research is warranted to explore the applications of 360VR and VR simulation for psycho-perceptual-motor-skill evaluation and training. Superior visuocognitive performance was observed in elite boxers and should also be a topic of further investigation. The methodological approach, implementation, and reflections are provided in detail to guide practitioners toward the applied use of VR in the sporting environment.