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A Mixed Methods Feasibility Study of Machine-Based Resistance Training With Prefrail Older Adults in Residential Care: The Keeping Active in Residential Elderly Trial II

Bridgitte Swales, Gemma C. Ryde, and Anna C. Whittaker

Physical activity is an effective, proactive intervention to reduce or reverse frailty and functional decline. However, uncertainty exists about the feasibility and impact of resistance training on multidimensional health in prefrail older adults in residential care. This mixed methods feasibility study assessed practicability with limited efficacy testing on health and functional outcomes. Eleven prefrail older adults participated in a 6-week progressive resistance training protocol three times per week. The intervention and measures were found to be appropriate and acceptable by those who completed the trial, with participants self-reporting improved well-being, mood, and function. Analysis identified several barriers to recruitment, including prior commitments, seasonal impact, and session timing, and offered potential solutions with further recommendations for program refinement prior to a definitive randomized controlled trial. These findings add to our understanding of prefrail older adults’ preferences regarding participation in physical activity research and the perceived benefits of resistance training. This trial was registered with NCT03141879.

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The Effects of Virtual Reality Training on Cognition in Older Adults: A Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis, and Meta-Regression of Randomized Controlled Trials

Mirjami Kantola, Outi Ilves, Sari Honkanen, Harto Hakonen, Riku Yli-Ikkelä, Anna Köyhäjoki, Marjo-Riitta Anttila, Aki Rintala, Hilkka Korpi, Tuulikki Sjögren, Juha Karvanen, and Eeva Aartolahti

The aim of this systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression was to examine the effects of virtual reality–based training on global cognition and executive function compared with conventional training or information-based treatment in older adults, regardless of cognitive level. A systematic literature search was conducted using four databases. A total of 31 randomized controlled trials were identified. Pooled effect sizes were calculated, the risk of bias was assessed, and evidence was graded. The primary analyses showed a small but statistically significant effect of virtual reality–based training compared with control on global cognition (Hedges’ g 0.42, 95% confidence interval [0.17, 0.68], I 2 = 70.1%, n = 876, 20 randomized controlled trials, low evidence) and executive function (Hedges’ g 0.35, 95% confidence interval [0.06, 0.65], I 2 = 68.4%, n = 810, 16 randomized controlled trials, very low evidence). Meta-regression yielded inconclusive results. Virtual reality–based training may be more effective than control in improving cognition in older adults; however, more high-quality studies are needed.

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Barriers and Facilitators to Participation in Vigorous Lifestyle Physical Activity in Adults Aged 55–75 Years: A Scoping Review

Bingyan Pang, Joanna C. Moullin, Craig Thompson, Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Emmanual Stamatakis, and Joanne A. McVeigh

Despite the well-known benefits of physical activity, less than half of adults aged 55–75 years participate in sufficient physical activity. Short bouts of vigorous intermittent lifestyle physical activity (VILPA) accumulated throughout the day can contribute toward the recommended volume of physical activity. A rich characterization of the barriers and facilitators to participation in VILPA is needed to develop targeted interventions. This scoping review aimed to identify barriers and facilitators to participation in different components of VILPA in adults aged 55–75 years, and to map barriers and facilitators to the Theoretical Domains Framework. Within the 18 eligible studies, the most prevalent barriers were related to a person’s skills, environmental context, and social influences. Most facilitators were related to a person’s goals, social influences, and environmental context. Interventions to promote VILPA should test the effectiveness of behavioral change measures related to the unique barriers and facilitators in this age group.

Open access

Movement Patterns in Older Adults Recovering From Hip Fracture

Jules J.M. Kraaijkamp, Marjon Stijntjes, Jurriaan H. De Groot, Niels H. Chavannes, Wilco P. Achterberg, and Eléonore F. van Dam van Isselt

The aim of this study was to quantify physical activity and sedentary behavior in older adults recovering from hip fracture and to identify groups based on movement patterns. In this cross-sectional cohort study, older adults (≥70 years) were included 3 months after surgery for proximal femoral fracture. Patients received an accelerometer for 7 days. Demographics and outcomes related to physical function, mobility, cognitive functions, quality of life, and hip fracture were assessed. In total, 43 patients with sufficient accelerometer wear time were included. Across all groups, participants engaged in very low levels of physical activity, spending an average of 11 hr/day in prolonged sedentary behavior. Based on the extracted components from a principal component analysis, three groups with substantial differences in levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior could be distinguished.

Open access

The Exercise Right for Active Ageing Study: Participation in Community-Based Exercise Classes by Older Australians During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Christina L. Ekegren, Darshini Ayton, Helen Skouteris, and Sze-Ee Soh

The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with participation of community-dwelling older Australians (≥65 years) in the Exercise Right for Active Ageing program, consisting of 12 low- to moderate-intensity group exercise classes, delivered weekly, in person or online, by accredited exercise scientists and physiologists across Australia. Out of 6,949 participants recruited, 6,626 (95%) attended one or more classes and were included in the primary analysis, and 49% of participants attended all 12 classes. Factors associated with higher class attendance included participation in yoga/flexibility/mobility classes, attendance at a free trial class (adjusted incidence rate ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.05 [1.03, 1.08]), and attending online classes (1.19 [1.11, 1.26]). Factors associated with lower class attendance included state of residence, living in inner regional areas (0.95 [0.93, 0.98]), and having two or more comorbidities (0.97 [0.95, 0.99]). High class attendance suggests that the Exercise Right for Active Ageing program was well received by older Australians, particularly in states less impacted by COVID-19 lockdowns.

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Physical Activity and Health of Middle-Aged and Older Japanese Across the COVID-19 Pandemic: Differential Outcomes Highlight a Problematic Life Stage

Michael Annear, Tetsuhiro Kidokoro, and Yasuo Shimizu

Introduction: COVID-19 caused major disruptions across the super-aged nation of Japan, yet few studies explored temporal changes among middle-aged and older cohorts from baseline to the height of community transmission. Changes in physical activity and sedentary behavior during global pandemics may alter patterns of morbidity and mortality among susceptible aging populations. Objectives: This study investigated patterns of physical activity, sitting behavior, and health among representative samples of middle-aged and older adults in Tokyo before and during the pandemic. Methods: Repeated online surveys were conducted with quota samples of 800 Tokyo residents in 2019 and 2021 using validated Japanese-language measures, including the short form-International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Basic Ecological Health Scale-6. Statistical analyses included comparative evaluations of activity parameters by age cohort, gender, and selected covariates. Statistical tests included the Kruskal–Wallis test, Mann–Whitney U test, chi-square test for Independence and Hierarchical Regression. Results: Over 34% of respondents were inactive at each data collection point, and 72% reported negative impacts of COVID-19 on their physical activities. Older adults showed no significant changes in their activity and sitting behavior and reported better health compared with those in middle age across the pandemic. Middle-aged males reported a significant decline in total activity of 33% across the pandemic period (U = 16,958, z = −2.64, p = .008, r = .13). Middle-aged females reported the lowest levels of physical activity, and health, and showed a 29% increase in sitting behavior across the pandemic (U = 16,925, z = −2.68, p = .007, r = .13). Subjective health status was consistently associated with higher overall activity and walking before and during the pandemic. Conclusion: Differential outcomes were identified between age and gender regarding health, physical activity, walking, and sitting across the pandemic with significantly worse impacts reported among middle-aged samples. Implications: These results have implications for healthy transitions to later life and the design of postpandemic interventions to address activity opportunities in Japan.

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Personalization Characteristics and Evaluation of Gamified Exercise for Middle-Aged and Older People: A Scoping Review

Lisha Ren, Jie Yan, Zhehao Zhu, and Murui Du

Many studies have shown that personalized exergames have a positive effect on promoting regular and proper exercise. However, there is no consensus on the design characteristics and evaluation of exergames. This systematic review of published research literature aimed to explore the general characteristics, personalization characteristics, and evaluation of personalized exergames for middle-aged and older people. We screened published studies in the Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, ACM, and IEEE Xplore databases, extracted data, and performed a thematic analysis according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews checklist. Three main themes and nine subthemes were generated from 24 included papers. Moreover, a personalization model (FACTS) and evaluation system (PMSS) of exergames were developed. Personalized exergames had potential positive effects on motivating middle-aged and older people to exercise and improve their health, particularly physical, mental, and social health. However, more fine-grained studies on personalized exergames are necessary in the future.

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Association Between Typologies of Sedentary Behavior and Muscle Strength, Gait Speed, and Balance in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

Letícia Martins Cândido, Núbia Carelli Pereira de Avelar, Eleonora D’Orsi, Ana Cristina Rodrigues Lacerda, Vanessa Amaral Mendonça, Gabriella Tringali, Alessandro Sartorio, and Ana Lúcia Danielewicz

Knowledge of how the different types of sedentary behaviors (SB) are associated with functional limitations can guide professionals who work with older adults on better recommendations about the amount of daily time that should be encouraged in each type of SB. The objective was to estimate the associations between two SB typologies (SB television [TV] and SB computer/internet) and the presence of handgrip strength, lower limb strength, gait speed, and balance limitations in Brazilian community-dwelling older adults. This is a cross-sectional study with 1,298 community-dwelling older adults (≥60 years). SB was assessed by self-reporting daily time spent watching TV or using computer/internet (categorized into <2, 3–4, and ≥5 hr/day). Outcomes were handgrip strength, lower limb strength, gait speed, and balance limitations considering referenced cutoff points. Older adults in SB TV ≥5 hr/day had 1.75 (95% confidence interval [CI] [1.07, 2.86]) and 1.88 (95% CI [1.02, 3.46]) times more chances of handgrip strength and gait speed limitations, respectively. On the other hand, those who spent 3–4 and ≥5 hr/day in SB computer/internet had 0.45 (95% CI [0.20, 0.99]) and 0.37 (95% CI [0.15, 0.93]) had less chances of lower limb strength and balance limitations, respectively. In conclusion, functional limitations would be associated differently depending on the type of SB in the older adults sampled.

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Association of Sitting Time With All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality: How Does Frailty Modify This Association?

Felipe Diaz-Toro, Carolina Nazzal Nazal, Gabriela Nazar, Ximena Diaz-Martinez, Yeny Concha-Cisternas, Carlos Celis-Morales, and Fanny Petermann-Rocha

To investigate how frailty modifies the association of sitting time with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in Chilean adults. This prospective study included 2,604 participants aged ≥35 from the Chilean National Health Survey 2009–2010. Sitting time was self-reported, while frailty was assessed using a 36-item Frailty Index. Sitting time was categorized as low, medium, and high. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the risk of mortality stratified for the sitting time categories. Over a median follow-up of 8.9 years, 311 participants died, 28% of them due to cardiovascular events. Frail people with prolonged sitting time were at higher risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio 3.13; 95% confidence interval [2.06, 4.71] and hazard ratio 2.41; 95% confidence interval [1.50, 3.64], respectively). The observed risk was higher in women than men. Public health and individual strategies should be implemented to decrease sitting time across the population, with special attention on frail people.

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Erratum. Effects of Dancing Associated With Resistance Training on Functional Parameters and Quality of Life of Aging Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Journal of Aging and Physical Activity