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Open access

Yeshayahu Hutzler, Riki Tesler, Avinoam Gilad, Kwok Ng, and Sharon Barak

Children and adolescents with disabilities (CAWD) represent 11% of Israeli children and adolescents. The 10 core indicators of the Global Matrix on Para Report Cards of physical activity (PA) of CAWD were used to create the 2022 Israeli Para Report Card. A panel of four experts reviewed resources and synthesized evidence of PA behaviors and policies for CAWD in Israel, converted the data to grades, and charted subcategories of language, sex, and disability across population. Data sources were surveys, reports, and memberships in sport federations and clubs. Among CAWD, levels of participation in daily PA were poor (<20%; Grade F), and participation of CAWD in sports was even lower (<10%; Grade F). A lack of environmental infrastructure may explain the low levels of participation. Females, Arabic speakers, and physiological CAWD need particular attention. Establishing governmental policies and interventions is required to increase overall PA and participation in sports among CAWD.

Open access

Salomé Aubert, Charlotte Verdot, Gilles Thöni, and Jérémy Vanhelst

The objectives of this work were (a) to adopt the Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance Report Card methodology to evaluate the state of physical activity (PA) for French children and adolescents with disabilities (CAWD) and (b) to identify the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) perceived by French PA experts for promoting PA among CAWD. The harmonized Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance Report Card development process was used to assign a grade to the 10 common PA indicators. SWOT templates were completed by PA experts and then collapsed in a summary figure. Despite increasing efforts to provide active opportunities to CAWD, concerning low grades were assigned to behavioral indicators. SWOT analysis provided important insights for the promotion of PA in CAWD. This work highlighted the need for the inclusion of CAWD in a comprehensive national PA surveillance system and for more efficient strategies promoting PA specifically targeting CAWD in France.

Open access

Jeongmin Lee, Kitaek Oh, Jihee Min, Seon-Young Goo, Eun-Young Lee, Kyoung June Yi, Jinmoo Heo, Joon-Sung Lee, Dong-il Kim, Wonsang Shin, Kwon-il Kim, Yeonsoo Kim, and Justin Y. Jeon

South Korea has developed its first Para Report Card on physical activity (PA) for children and adolescents with disabilities. Five national surveillance databases were used to evaluate PA indicators based on the benchmarks and grading rubric provided by Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance. Report card evaluation committees were invited to grade and assess the results using strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats analysis. Five indicators (overall PA, D+; organized sports and PA, D−; active transportation, D−; physical fitness, D+; and government, A+) and one additional indicator (sleep, C−) were assigned a letter grade. The other five indicators were graded as incomplete. The Para Report Card revealed a significant gap between the behavioral-indicator grades (D− to D+) and the policy-indicator grade (A+), suggesting that government strategies and investment have not yet been translated into behavioral PA among children and adolescents with disabilities.

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Miguel A. López-Gajardo, Inmaculada González-Ponce, Tomás García-Calvo, Edgar Enrich-Alturo, and Francisco M. Leo

We present two studies examining the relationship between athlete leadership quality and team resilience and explored the mediating effect of team identification. In Study 1, 194 soccer players (M age = 18.50, SD = 4.49) from eight national teams participated. Structural equation modeling showed cross-sectionally that the four types of athlete leadership qualities were positively related to the characteristics of resilience and negatively to vulnerability under pressure. Team identification was shown to be a mediator of these relationships. Study 2, with four different time-points, involved 208 young soccer players (M age = 16.05, SD = 3.39) from two professional clubs (i.e., La Liga). Cross-lagged panel models revealed that task leadership quality (Times 1–2) was positively related to the characteristics of resilience (Times 3–4) and negatively to vulnerability under pressure (Times 3–4). However, team identification did not mediate these relationships. Therefore, practitioners should consider the perceptions of leader quality to achieve benefits during competition.

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Kaelin Agar, Spencer DeMedal, Abbigail Delmonte, Lauren Bell, Kyle Fisher, and Erica Beidler

Context: Review articles published in 2010 concluded that there was strong evidence to support the use of helmets as a way to decrease the risk of sustaining a head injury during snow sport participation. However, new research published over the last decade on this relationship warrants revisiting this primary injury prevention approach. Clinical Question: What is the effect of helmet use on the occurrence of head injuries in snow sports? Clinical Bottom Line: The results from the included studies did not consistently find a reduction in head injury occurrence with helmet use in snow sports. Rather, the collective findings were more supportive of a neutral relationship between helmet use and head injuries. Therefore, these heterogeneous findings indicate there is SORT Level B evidence to support the use of helmets as a primary head injury prevention approach in snow sports. Future initiatives should acknowledge the multifaceted nature of injury occurrence and seek to educate the public more clearly on the limitations of helmet use during skiing and snowboarding.

Open access

Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Nicholas Kuzik, Leigh M. Vanderloo, Kathleen A. Martin Ginis, Maeghan E. James, Rebecca L. Bassett-Gunter, Daniela Ruttle, Pinder DaSilva, Katerina Disimino, Christine Cameron, Mike Arthur, Keiko Shikako, and Amy E. Latimer-Cheung

This report provides an expert appraisal of the Canadian Para Report Card on physical activity (PA) for children and adolescents with disabilities. Thirteen indicators were graded by a panel of researchers, representatives from disability and PA organizations, and parents of children and adolescents with disabilities using benchmarks of the Global Matrix 4.0 and previous Canadian PA Report Cards. Facilitated panel discussions were used to appraise the available evidence based on data gaps, opportunities, and recommendations. The available data sources included four nationally generalizable or representative data sets. Grades were assigned to 8/13 indicators and ranged from B+ to F. Data gaps in measurement and national surveillance systems were identified. Ableism was an issue identified within some of the reporting benchmarks. The absence of PA from existing accessibility legislation in Canada was a policy gap of concern. Recommendations related to research, surveillance, and policy are provided to enhance PA among children and adolescents with disabilities in Canada.

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Alexandrya H. Cairns, Stephanie M. Singe, and Christianne M. Eason

Burnout and work–family conflict (WFC) are stressors faced by secondary school athletic trainers, however, the concept of perceived stress and its relationship to burnout or WFC is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate perceived stress’ relationship with burnout and WFC. Participants reported a WFC score of 40.36 (±15.63), low burnout (40.1 ± 16.28), and moderate stress (15.99 ± 7.02). Perceived stress predicted WFC, but not burnout (b = 1.13, t 572 = 14.132, p ≤ .001). One’s level of perceived stress impacts WFC, which indicates higher stress will equal greater work–family conflict.

Open access

P. Asunta, K. Kämppi, K. Ng, A. Saari, and T. Tammelin

Finland’s 2022 Para Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Adolescents With Disabilities includes a summary of results and grades for 10 physical activity indicators and highlights how these grades are interpreted by stakeholders. The disability classification was based on the UNICEF/Washington Group on Disability Statistics measure, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD7) measure, or education status. Data between 2017 and 2021 were reviewed by 24 physical activity specialists using benchmarks adapted for data on disabilities from the Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance. The grades were assigned as follows: Overall Physical Activity, C+; Organized Sport, C; Active Play, D; Active Transportation, B; Family and Peers, C+; School, B; Community and Environment, C−; Government, A−; sedentary behavior and physical fitness were graded as incomplete. Stakeholder focus-group discussions highlighted the need for multidisciplinary cooperation and increasing competence of specialists working with children to promote a physically active lifestyle for all children.

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Hannah L. Stedge, Thomas Cappaert, Valerie W. Herzog, Beth Kinslow, and Malissa Martin

The Athletic Trainers’ Self-Confidence Scale (ATSCS) is a nine-item Likert-scale questionnaire assessing the respondent’s level of agreement with statements regarding confidence in recognizing and managing exertional heat illnesses. Test–retest reliability of this instrument has not yet been established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the internal consistency, test–retest reliability, and minimum detectable change score for the composite score of the ATSCS. A total of 18 professional master of science in athletic training students (nine first-year and nine second-year students) completed the ATSCS at three testing sessions with 48 hr between sessions. The nine items of the ATSCS demonstrated good internal consistency (α = .86; 95% confidence interval [.78, .94]). The composite scores of the ATSCS demonstrated moderate test–retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = .75; 95% confidence interval [.497, .893]). The calculated minimal detectable change for the composite change score was 6.19. The ATSCS has good internal reliability as well as test–retest reliability. These results display that the tool will provide consistent, reliable results of changes in athletic training students’ self-confidence.

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Martin Alfuth, Pia Joana Franke, Jonas Klemp, and Axel Johannes Knicker

Context: After anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR), long-term functional deficiencies can occur, with controversial results reported when comparing women and men. Dynamic balance and unilateral hop test performance are considered important indicators for the risk of reinjury of the lower extremity. Although both sexes seem to have a similar risk to experience a second anterior cruciate ligament injury, sex-specific differences of dynamic balance and unilateral hop performance in handball players following ACLR are unknown. Objective: To compare dynamic balance and unilateral hop performance between women and men handball players at least 6 months after ACLR. Design: Cross-sectional pilot study. Participants: Ten women (27.6 [4.5] y) and 10 men (26.5 [3.1] y) handball players 6 to 16 months after ACLR. Outcome Measures: Dynamic balance and unilateral hop performance were assessed using the Y-Balance Test and the Single-Leg Hop for Distance Test. Results: Women players demonstrated significantly better results in the anterior direction of the Y-Balance Test for both legs compared with men players. Hop performance was not significantly different between sexes. Conclusion: Dynamic balance and single-leg hop performance seem not to differ between women and men handball players 6 to 16 months after ACLR. The difference between sexes in the anterior reach direction of the Y-Balance Test should be considered small, rather than representing a true difference.