Purpose: Grounded in self-determination theory, this study examined gender latent mean differences in students’ perceptions of externally and internally controlling teaching behaviors, basic psychological need frustration, controlled motivation, amotivation, and oppositional defiance in the physical education context. Moreover, it analyzed the differentiated role that internal and external controlling behaviors play on these self-determination theory-related variables among girls and boys. Method: A sample of 1,118 students (M age = 14.11 ± 1.50; 50.9% girls) participated in this research. A multigroup structural equation modeling approach was used to respond to the research questions. Results: Analyses revealed that girls reported more maladaptive outcomes in most self-determination theory-related variables than boys. Although externally and internally controlling behaviors of physical education teachers were positively related to maladaptive outcomes, the behaviors correlate differently between boys and girls. Conclusion: Findings highlight the importance of reducing externally controlling behaviors in boys and internally controlling behaviors in both genders, but particularly in girls.
Ángel Abós, Rafael Burgueño, Luis García-González, and Javier Sevil-Serrano
Ben Dyson, Donal Howley, and Yanhua Shen
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore primary teachers’ perspectives of implementing cooperative learning (CL) to accomplish social and emotional learning (SEL) in Aotearoa New Zealand physical education. Method: A qualitative case study design gathered data from 21 teachers at four primary schools using interviews, focus groups, and field notes. Inductive and deductive analysis were used for data analysis. Findings: Four primary themes are presented: emotional processes, social and interpersonal skills, students working it out, and taking time. Findings show that using CL as a pedagogical approach allowed teachers to teach for and accomplish SEL outcomes while accomplishing broader learning outcomes in physical education. However, there appeared to be shortcomings and constraints in the implementation of CL to accomplish SEL outcomes comprehensively. Conclusion: Future research should look to examine and connect professional learning involving pedagogical approaches like CL in physical education to SEL theory and school settings to enhance learning.
Minhyun Kim, José A. Santiago, Chan Woong Park, and Emily A. Roper
Grounded in occupational socialization theory, the authors examined adapted physical education (APE) teachers’ job satisfaction. Twelve (nine female and three male) APE teachers who had 3–43 years of teaching experience participated in the study. A semistructured interview was employed. The interviews focused on the participants’ roles and responsibilities. The following questions guided this study: (a) What social agents positively impact APE teachers’ job satisfaction? (b) what APE teachers’ roles and responsibilities are related to job satisfaction? and (c) what type of working conditions are linked to APE teachers’ job satisfaction? Thematic analysis was employed to analyze the data. The following four themes emerged from the analysis: (a) support from administrators, physical education teachers, and colleagues; (b) relevant and meaningful professional development; (c) itinerant working conditions; and (d) seeing students’ progress and achievement. The results of this study provide several implications to enhance APE teachers’ job satisfaction.
Hilkka Kontro, Marta Kozior, Gráinne Whelehan, Miryam Amigo-Benavent, Catherine Norton, Brian P. Carson, and Phil Jakeman
Supplementing postexercise carbohydrate (CHO) intake with protein has been suggested to enhance recovery from endurance exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate whether adding protein to the recovery drink can improve 24-hr recovery when CHO intake is suboptimal. In a double-blind crossover design, 12 trained men performed three 2-day trials consisting of constant-load exercise to reduce glycogen on Day 1, followed by ingestion of a CHO drink (1.2 g·kg−1·2 hr−1) either without or with added whey protein concentrate (CHO + PRO) or whey protein hydrolysate (CHO + PROH) (0.3 g·kg−1·2 hr−1). Arterialized blood glucose and insulin responses were analyzed for 2 hr postingestion. Time-trial performance was measured the next day after another bout of glycogen-reducing exercise. The 30-min time-trial performance did not differ between the three trials (M ± SD, 401 ± 75, 411 ± 80, 404 ± 58 kJ in CHO, CHO + PRO, and CHO + PROH, respectively, p = .83). No significant differences were found in glucose disposal (area under the curve [AUC]) between the postexercise conditions (364 ± 107, 341 ± 76, and 330 ± 147, mmol·L−1·2 hr−1, respectively). Insulin AUC was lower in CHO (18.1 ± 7.7 nmol·L−1·2 hr−1) compared with CHO + PRO and CHO + PROH (24.6 ± 12.4 vs. 24.5 ± 10.6, p = .036 and .015). No difference in insulin AUC was found between CHO + PRO and CHO + PROH. Despite a higher acute insulin response, adding protein to a CHO-based recovery drink after a prolonged, high-intensity exercise bout did not change next-day exercise capacity when overall 24-hr macronutrient and caloric intake was controlled.
Alexandra M. Rodriguez, Alison Ede, Leilani Madrigal, Tiffanye Vargas, and Christy Greenleaf
This study aimed to assess the internalization of sociocultural attitudes and appearance comparison among U.S. athletes with physical disabilities. Female (n = 19) and male (n = 25) athletes between the ages of 18 and 73 years completed a quantitative survey along with two exploratory open-ended questions related to body appearance and influencers. Results showed significant correlations between internalization of the thin and low-body-fat ideal and appearance comparison (r = .55, p < .05) and internalization of the muscular ideal and appearance comparison (r = .76, p < .05) among women. For men, results showed a significant association between internalization of the muscular ideal and appearance comparison (r = .52, p < .05). The findings prompt further investigation of whether appearance comparison and internalization influence body dissatisfaction and disordered eating among athletes with physical disabilities.
Ghada Regaieg, Sonia Sahli, and Gilles Kermarrec
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of two pedagogical strategies in adapted physical education (hybrid virtual/real vs. conventional) on fundamental movement skills (FMS) in children with intellectual disability age 7–10 years. Children with intellectual disability (N = 24) were randomly assigned to either the hybrid (experimental group) or the conventional (control group) group and were evaluated across 10 weeks. The hybrid program was based on virtual and real game situations, while the conventional program was based on adapted sports. FMS were evaluated using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 at pre- and postprogram for both groups. Both programs significantly improve locomotor skills, with significantly better improvement in the experimental group. However, a significant improvement was observed only among the experimental group for object-control skills and gross motor quotient. Based on these results, a hybrid program may be considered for FMS improvement.
Darda Sales and Laura Misener
This study examined para swimmers’ athlete development experiences from the perspectives and reflections of athletes, and parents of athletes, with a focus on the constraints and challenges experienced. Guided by interpretive phenomenological analysis, 12 participants engaged in the interview process (seven parents and five athletes). Five themes were identified: fundamental skill development, personal connection, coaching, classification, and connecting with others “like me.” Through a discussion of the differences in development experiences between the participants in this study and the current literature on athlete development, the authors highlight areas of concern in applying a non-para-specific athlete development model to para swimmers. This study identifies several areas of consideration in the future design of a para athlete development framework or model.
Scott McLean, Hugo A. Kerhervé, Nicholas Stevens, and Paul M. Salmon
Purpose: The broad aim of sport-science research is to enhance the performance of coaches and athletes. Despite decades of such research, it is well documented that sport-science research lacks empirical evidence, and critics have questioned its scientific methods. Moreover, many have pointed to a research–practice gap, whereby the work undertaken by researchers is not readily applied by practitioners. The aim of this study was to use a systems thinking analysis method, causal loop diagrams, to understand the systemic issues that interact to influence the quality of sport-science research. Methods: A group model-building process was utilized to develop the causal loop diagram based on data obtained from relevant peer-reviewed literature and subject-matter experts. Results: The findings demonstrate the panoply of systemic influences associated with sport-science research, including the existence of silos, a focus on quantitative research, archaic practices, and an academic system that is incongruous with what it actually purports to achieve. Conclusions: The emergent outcome of the interacting components is the creation of an underperforming sport-science research system, as indicated by a lack of ecological validity, translation to practice, and, ultimately, a research–practice gap.
Janet A. Lawson, Jennifer Turnnidge, and Amy E. Latimer-Cheung
Nonformal learning opportunities, such as accessing text-based online resources, are an important means of developing parasport coaches’ knowledge of how to coach. However, the focus of such resources, as well as their quality and quantity, are unknown. Using an adapted version of Lefebvre, Evans, Turnnidge, Gainforth, and Côté’s taxonomy of coach development programs, the authors explored and cataloged text-based online resources for parasport coaches identified through a broad Internet search. In addition, the technical quality of these resources was evaluated. After cataloguing and evaluating 136 resources, professional knowledge domains, specifically pedagogy and planning, were identified as the most commonly targeted domains of focus. The least frequently cited professional domains of focus were maltreatment, movement fundamentals, and preventative health and health promotion. Limited resources addressed interpersonal and intrapersonal domains of focus. Resource quality varied greatly, but the overall quality was low indicating that increasing the technical quality of online resources should be prioritized in the future.