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Jeannine Ohlert, Thea Rau, and Marc Allroggen

The experience of sexual violence is known to be associated with a higher risk for depression and reduced long-term well-being, but the association has not been determined in elite athletes. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to further our understanding of the consequences of sexual violence experiences in elite athletes and into the influence of the context of the incidents. In total, 1529 German elite athletes took part in an online survey. Results reveal that athletes who had experienced sexual violence indicated lower well-being and a higher risk for depression. Also, the context of the incidents did influence the sexual violence – well-being/risk for depression relationship. In addition to showing that elite athletes are a very vulnerable group for different forms of interpersonal violence, our results underpin the need for more preventive measures in the area of (elite) sport when it comes to the prevention of interpersonal violence.

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Marja Kokkonen

This study surveyed 155 gender and sexual minority (GSM) sport participants to examine 1) nonverbal and verbal gender-based and sexual harassment by a coach in relation to psychological ill-being, and 2) differences in harassment due to gender and sexual orientation. Self-reported data from 93 females and 62 males was collected anonymously and analyzed using Spearman’s rank-order correlations and cross-tabulation with chi-square tests. Nonverbal and verbal gender-based and sexual harassment by a coach was related to more frequent stress, psychosomatic symptoms and depressive symptoms only in male GSM sport participants. Undermining was related to more frequent depressive symptoms in males. There were no statistically significant gender differences in harassment. As for sexual orientation, there was a statistically significant association between verbal harassment by the coach and sexual orientation. The present findings have scientific, educational and clinical importance for sport psychologists involved in research, coach education and applied work.

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Kristine Bisgaard and Jan Toftegaard Støckel

Based on interviews with two female athletes, this paper examines how sexual harassment and abuse occurs and why it is difficult to terminate and report. This paper presents narratives through a realist tale with the athletes’ own words to provide greater in-depth and detailed understanding of sexual harassment and abuse in the field of sport. Moreover, the narratives illustrate how grooming behavior may become engrained in the everyday cultural practices of sport. Following the narratives, an examination which integrates elements of Bourdieu’s theory of action in the understanding of a grooming process, sexual harassment and abuse is provided. The paper concludes that the coach’s high levels of capital and the doxa of the field effectively contribute to the building of trust and the silence of the athletes’ voice.

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Victoria McGee and J.D. DeFreese

This study examined associations among athlete perceptions of the coach-athlete relationship and psychological outcomes of burnout and engagement across a competitive season. We hypothesized that higher levels of the three markers of the coach-athlete relationship (closeness, commitment, and complementarity) would be negatively associated with burnout and positively associated with engagement across a sport season. American female collegiate rowers (N = 37; Mage = 19.3 years, SD = 1.18) completed online self-report assessments of study variables at four seasonal survey waves. Multilevel linear modeling analyses revealed closeness to be a significant predictor of seasonal global burnout and engagement across the season assessment period. Findings inform future research and intervention to promote engagement and deter burnout via improving coach-athlete closeness.

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Emily Kroshus

In a sample of collegiate athletes, the present study assessed whether there’s a discrepancy between perceived and true team norms related to bystander engagement to prevent sexual assault. Collegiate athletes completed surveys (n = 167, response rate = 55%) assessing their own expected likelihood of engaging in behaviors related to the prevention of sexual assault. A mirrored set of items asked about what they believe their teammates would do in the same situations. From these responses, perceived and true team norms were calculated. Among both male and female athletes, perceived norms were significantly less supportive of sexual assault prevention than were true norms. Perceived norms were significantly predictive of an individual’s own expected behaviors. Sport psychologists and other campus mental health professionals who are helping develop programming about sexual assault prevention should incorporate norm correction into their efforts. Consideration should be given to how the unique dynamics of male and female sports settings might influence receptivity to norm correcting efforts.

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Joanne Perry, Ashley Hansen, Michael Ross, Taylor Montgomery, and Jeremiah Weinstock

Heart Rate Variability (HRV) technology enables practitioners to analyze the physiological effects of stress. High levels of HRV are associated with improved stress management and sport performance. This study examined the effectiveness of athletes’ (N = 20 collegiate male soccer players) existing mental strategies in maintaining high HRV following three separate stressors. A brief (12-minute) athlete-specific adaptation of a physiological assessment protocol was administered to all athletes. Findings suggest that athletes significantly improved HRV following a cognitive and sport-specific stressor (p < .05); however, athletes were unable to increase HRV following a physical stressor (p > .05). Results suggest athletes were less equipped to cope with physical pain. The process of providing assessment feedback to coaches and athletes is discussed. Finally, clinical and research applications for this brief assessment are introduced and explored.

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Matthew D. Bird and Brandonn S. Harris

Sport psychology professionals have increasingly utilized technology for providing performance enhancement and clinical services. Some uncertainty exists amongst professionals to the ethical nature of providing services using technology. The purpose of this study was to survey Certified Consultants of the Association for Applied Sport Psychology (AASP) on the frequency and perceived ethicality of their technology use for providing performance enhancement and clinical services. A secondary purpose was to investigate differences in perceived ethicality between consultants with professional licensure compared to unlicensed professionals. Results suggest overall technology use for service delivery by consultants is low. Technologies used to provide clinical services displayed significantly lower ethical ratings compared to their use for performance enhancement purposes. Differences between licensed consultants and those who are unlicensed emerged for the ethical perceptions of providing performance enhancement services via email, cell phone, and videoconferencing, as well as for clinical services provided via cell phone.

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Stine Nylandsted Jensen, Andreas Ivarsson, Johan Fallby, and Anne-Marie Elbe

This study investigated gambling among Danish and Swedish male elite football players. A cross-sectional design was used to survey 323 players (Mage = 22.08, SD = 5.15). The survey included a screening tool for gambling, as well as measures for depression and sport anxiety. The overall rate of players identified as at-risk gamblers was 16.1%. Linear regression analyses revealed that depression and sport anxiety significantly predicted gambling behaviors, and explained 2% and 6% of variance, respectively. The age of the players and the age at which they specialize did not moderate these relationships. Further research on gambling in football and its relation to mental disorders is needed.

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Maria Grazia Monaci and Francesca Veronesi

The study examined the impact of gender and gender role identification on anger felt while playing tennis and its consequences on performance. A total of 180 recreational tennis players (92 male, 88 female) self-reported frequency, intensity, and duration of anger they felt during tennis matches and perceived effects on performance; Staxi-2 was used to measure internal/external anger control and expression, and PAQ to measure gender role identification. Results showed no gender differences in the subjective experience of anger, whereas gender differences do emerge in its regulation strategies and expression: men express anger outwardly and women use internalization strategies and suppression. A structural equation model suggested that internally controlling anger and outwardly expressing it has positive impacts on performance, while anger intensity may worsen performance, particularly in female players. The extra energy needed to comply with the gender appropriateness of the anger expression determines a more negative impact on females’ performance.

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Tanya R. Prewitt-White

Grooming is an ever-increasing concern for sport stakeholders, sport administrators, and parents as sport provides an ideal site for the exploitation of children. Through sharing personal autoethnographic accounts I hope to shed light on seemingly small yet accumulative behaviors that serve as warning signs for sexual assault of a minor through unveiling my experience of being groomed by a former coach. Additionally, a call to action for grooming prevention and boundary education programming in sport are provided.