This study examined associations among athlete perceptions of the coach-athlete relationship and psychological outcomes of burnout and engagement across a competitive season. We hypothesized that higher levels of the three markers of the coach-athlete relationship (closeness, commitment, and complementarity) would be negatively associated with burnout and positively associated with engagement across a sport season. American female collegiate rowers (N = 37; Mage = 19.3 years, SD = 1.18) completed online self-report assessments of study variables at four seasonal survey waves. Multilevel linear modeling analyses revealed closeness to be a significant predictor of seasonal global burnout and engagement across the season assessment period. Findings inform future research and intervention to promote engagement and deter burnout via improving coach-athlete closeness.
Victoria McGee and J.D. DeFreese
In a sample of collegiate athletes, the present study assessed whether there’s a discrepancy between perceived and true team norms related to bystander engagement to prevent sexual assault. Collegiate athletes completed surveys (n = 167, response rate = 55%) assessing their own expected likelihood of engaging in behaviors related to the prevention of sexual assault. A mirrored set of items asked about what they believe their teammates would do in the same situations. From these responses, perceived and true team norms were calculated. Among both male and female athletes, perceived norms were significantly less supportive of sexual assault prevention than were true norms. Perceived norms were significantly predictive of an individual’s own expected behaviors. Sport psychologists and other campus mental health professionals who are helping develop programming about sexual assault prevention should incorporate norm correction into their efforts. Consideration should be given to how the unique dynamics of male and female sports settings might influence receptivity to norm correcting efforts.
Joanne Perry, Ashley Hansen, Michael Ross, Taylor Montgomery, and Jeremiah Weinstock
Heart Rate Variability (HRV) technology enables practitioners to analyze the physiological effects of stress. High levels of HRV are associated with improved stress management and sport performance. This study examined the effectiveness of athletes’ (N = 20 collegiate male soccer players) existing mental strategies in maintaining high HRV following three separate stressors. A brief (12-minute) athlete-specific adaptation of a physiological assessment protocol was administered to all athletes. Findings suggest that athletes significantly improved HRV following a cognitive and sport-specific stressor (p < .05); however, athletes were unable to increase HRV following a physical stressor (p > .05). Results suggest athletes were less equipped to cope with physical pain. The process of providing assessment feedback to coaches and athletes is discussed. Finally, clinical and research applications for this brief assessment are introduced and explored.
Matthew D. Bird and Brandonn S. Harris
Sport psychology professionals have increasingly utilized technology for providing performance enhancement and clinical services. Some uncertainty exists amongst professionals to the ethical nature of providing services using technology. The purpose of this study was to survey Certified Consultants of the Association for Applied Sport Psychology (AASP) on the frequency and perceived ethicality of their technology use for providing performance enhancement and clinical services. A secondary purpose was to investigate differences in perceived ethicality between consultants with professional licensure compared to unlicensed professionals. Results suggest overall technology use for service delivery by consultants is low. Technologies used to provide clinical services displayed significantly lower ethical ratings compared to their use for performance enhancement purposes. Differences between licensed consultants and those who are unlicensed emerged for the ethical perceptions of providing performance enhancement services via email, cell phone, and videoconferencing, as well as for clinical services provided via cell phone.
Stine Nylandsted Jensen, Andreas Ivarsson, Johan Fallby, and Anne-Marie Elbe
This study investigated gambling among Danish and Swedish male elite football players. A cross-sectional design was used to survey 323 players (Mage = 22.08, SD = 5.15). The survey included a screening tool for gambling, as well as measures for depression and sport anxiety. The overall rate of players identified as at-risk gamblers was 16.1%. Linear regression analyses revealed that depression and sport anxiety significantly predicted gambling behaviors, and explained 2% and 6% of variance, respectively. The age of the players and the age at which they specialize did not moderate these relationships. Further research on gambling in football and its relation to mental disorders is needed.
Maria Grazia Monaci and Francesca Veronesi
The study examined the impact of gender and gender role identification on anger felt while playing tennis and its consequences on performance. A total of 180 recreational tennis players (92 male, 88 female) self-reported frequency, intensity, and duration of anger they felt during tennis matches and perceived effects on performance; Staxi-2 was used to measure internal/external anger control and expression, and PAQ to measure gender role identification. Results showed no gender differences in the subjective experience of anger, whereas gender differences do emerge in its regulation strategies and expression: men express anger outwardly and women use internalization strategies and suppression. A structural equation model suggested that internally controlling anger and outwardly expressing it has positive impacts on performance, while anger intensity may worsen performance, particularly in female players. The extra energy needed to comply with the gender appropriateness of the anger expression determines a more negative impact on females’ performance.
Tanya R. Prewitt-White
Grooming is an ever-increasing concern for sport stakeholders, sport administrators, and parents as sport provides an ideal site for the exploitation of children. Through sharing personal autoethnographic accounts I hope to shed light on seemingly small yet accumulative behaviors that serve as warning signs for sexual assault of a minor through unveiling my experience of being groomed by a former coach. Additionally, a call to action for grooming prevention and boundary education programming in sport are provided.
Gavin Breslin, Tandy Haughey, Wesley O’Brien, Laura Caulfield, Alexa Robertson, and Martin Lawlor
The present study had three aims, to determine: (a) whether providing a curriculum-based mental health awareness program to athletes increased knowledge of mental health and intentions to offer support; (b) whether the program increased resilience and well-being compared to a control group; and (c) the feasibility of the program. A total of 100 participants (M age = 20.78; SD = 2.91; male = 59) either attended the program or were part of a control group. Participants completed questionnaires pre-, post-, and 3-months post-intervention, although there was a low participant return rate for the 3-month follow-up (n = 15). Participants were invited to take part in a focus group to explore program relevance. Knowledge of mental health and intentions to offer support increased for the intervention group, compared to the control. The program with some modification could be integrated into university sport courses to promote mental health awareness.
Richard E. Tahtinen and Hafrun Kristjansdottir
This study explored the influence of current anxiety and depression symptoms on intentions to seek professional help from a psychologist. Furthermore, the aim was to explore if symptoms influenced intentions differently in male and female, and in athlete and non-athlete samples. A total of 375 non-athlete university students and 187 individual sport athletes, 18 years and older were included in the study. A significant main effect of symptoms on help-seeking intentions was observed among females and this was moderated by athlete status; female athletes with depression symptoms reported lower intentions than female non-athletes with depression symptoms. There was no main effect of symptoms among athletes, but a significant cross-over interaction effect of symptoms and gender on intentions was observed; non-symptomatic female athletes reported higher intentions than male athletes without symptoms, and female athletes with depression symptoms reported lower intentions than male athletes with depression symptoms. Results suggested that experiencing depression symptoms may decrease female athletes’ intentions to seek help from psychologist.