Purpose: Optimal training for endurance performance remains a debated topic. In this case study, the training of a world-class middle-/long-distance runner over a year’s duration is presented. Methods: The training is analyzed via 2 methods to define training intensity distribution (TID) (1) by physiological zones and (2) by zones based on race pace. TID was analyzed over the full season, but also over the final 6, 12, and 26 weeks to allow for consideration of periodization/phases of season. The results of both methods are compared. Other training data measured include volume and number of sessions. Results: The average weekly volume for the athlete was 145.8 (24.8) km·wk−1. TID by physiological analysis was polarized for the last 6 weeks of the season but was pyramidal when analyzed over the final 12, 26, and 52 weeks of the season. TID by race-pace analysis was pyramidal across all time points. The athlete finished 12th in the final of the World Championship 5000-m and made the semifinal of the 1500-m. He was ranked in the top 16 in the world for 1500, 5000, and 10,000 m. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate a potential flaw with recent work suggesting polarized training as the most effective means to improve endurance performance. Here, different analysis methods produced 2 different types of TID. A polarized distribution was only seen when analyzed by physiological approach, and only during the last 6 weeks of a 52-week season. Longer-term prospective studies relating performance and physiological changes are suggested.
Mark Kenneally, Arturo Casado, Josu Gomez-Ezeiza, and Jordan Santos-Concejero
Stacy Imagbe, Baofu Wang, Yang Liu, Jared Androzzi, Xiangli Gu, and Senlin Chen
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the potential racial disparities in education for active living (i.e., regular participation in moderate to vigorous physical activity with mitigated and interrupted levels of sedentary behavior) between Black/African American and White students. Methods: The study took place in one public middle school located in the Southeastern region of the United States. A total of 167 Black and 168 White students in sixth, seventh, and eighth grades completed a written test and a survey in physical education to assess active living knowledge and behaviors, respectively. Results: Multivariate analysis of covariance and tests of between-subjects effects showed significant race differences. Specifically, Black students scored significantly lower on the knowledge test and reported lower levels of physical activity out of school, and higher levels of sedentary behavior than White students, after controlling for grade and gender. Conclusion: The results identified racial disparities in knowledge and behaviors of active living. Tailored, culturally relevant active living education in and out of schools are needed to level the playing field for Black students.
Ryan S. Sacko, Cate A. Egan, Jenna Fisher, Chelsee Shortt, and Kerry McIver
Purpose: To determine the accuracy of three systematic observation (SO) tools to estimate energy expenditure (EE) using different skill performance and observation intervals. Method: Three SO tools (Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Preschool, System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time, and System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity in Youth) were used to observe children (N = 42, M age = 8.1 ± 0.7) during motor skill testing sessions. EE was measured using indirect calorimetry (COSMED K4b2). Results: Paired samples t tests, repeated-measures analysis of variance, and regression analyses were performed to compare the EE estimated from SO tools with EE measured by indirect calorimetry. The average mean difference between the estimated metabolic equivalence of task (METS) and actual METS ranged between −1.24 METS (SD = 1.62, p < .01) and −3.46 METS (SD = 1.31, p < .01) depending on skill performance interval or SO tool analyzed. Conclusions: SO tools did not accurately estimate EE during object control skill testing sessions. Physical educators should consider utilizing discrete motor skill practice to accumulate health-enhancing levels of physical activity while adhering to national standards.
Scott W.T. McNamara, Ali Brian, and Melissa Bittner
Identifying tools to reinforce content on teaching children with visual impairments (VI) is needed to better inform future physical educators as children with VI often have poor physical education (PE) experiences. Content acquisition podcasts (CAPs), podcasts created with instructional design principles and expert-developed content, may provide preservice PE teachers with knowledge and confidence needed to properly teach children with VI. The purpose of this investigation was to compare knowledge and self-efficacy differences from pre- to postintervention among a control group, a textbook chapter group, and a CAPs group. A knowledge and self-efficacy assessment was developed through a modified Delphi method. The CAPs participants showed significantly higher knowledge gains compared with other groups. The CAPs group revealed significantly higher self-efficacy gain when compared with the control but did not significantly differ from one another. The textbook group did not significantly differ from the control group. Implications for future research and suggestions for practitioners are discussed.
Fatih Dervent, Xiuye Xie, Erhan Devrilmez, Nazım Nayır, and Weidong Li
Purpose: This study was to examine the effects of a curricular model named Situated Game Teaching through Set Plays (SGTSP) on secondary students’ tactical knowledge in a 10-lesson soccer unit. Methods: A quasi-experimental design with a repeated measure was used to examine the effectiveness of the SGTSP model in comparison with a technique-focused approach. Participants’ perceptions of SGTSP were collected through reflection journals throughout the unit. A convenient sample of 27 sixth graders from two classes participated in this study. Data were collected from a tactical knowledge test and reflection journals. A 3 × 2 × 2 factorial analysis of variance with a repeated measure was conducted to analyze the data. Responses to reflection journals were analyzed by deductive analysis and constant comparison. Results: Participants’ tactical knowledge in the SGTSP condition improved significantly more than those in the comparison condition over time. Conclusions: The findings provided evidence supporting the effectiveness of the SGTSP model on developing students’ tactical knowledge as compared to a technique-focused approach.
K. Andrew R. Richards, Alyssa M. Trad, Christopher J. Kinder, Kim C. Graber, and Amelia Mays Woods
Purpose: Grounded in occupational socialization theory, the purpose of this study was to test a conceptual framework for understanding the role of emotional intelligence and resilience in the development of perceived mattering among U.S. physical education teacher education faculty using structural equation modeling. Method: The sample included 286 U.S. faculty members (151 females and 135 males), and the data were collected through an online survey that included instruments to measure key study variables. The primary analyses used structural equation modeling to evaluate relationships hypothesized in the conceptual model. Results: While not all hypothesized relationships in the model were significant, generally, the results confirmed the hypothesized relationships among the study variables, suggesting that resilience mediates the relationship between emotional intelligence and perceived mattering. Discussion: Socioemotional skills, such as emotional intelligence, appear important for helping physical education teacher education faculty members perceive resiliency and mattering in their work. Accordingly, these skills should be considered for doctoral education and faculty development programs.
K. Andrew R. Richards, Michael A. Hemphill, and Sara B. Flory
While there are benefits to collaborative research, navigating group dynamics can also bring challenges, particularly for doctoral students and early career academics who are new to the research process. These dynamics extend beyond initial manuscript submission and include processes associated with interpreting reviewer comments, deciding upon and making revisions, and developing clear author response documents through the revision process. Herein, the authors overview one systematic and replicable approach to managing revisions. Steps include (a) read, set aside, and return to the reviewer comments; (b) document initial reactions to comments; (c) collectively review the comments and decide upon direction; (d) coordinate revisions to the manuscript; (e) craft final response statements; and (f) prepare a resubmission cover letter to the editor. Recommendations will be provided for approaching the revision, including how to revise the manuscript to highlight edits, and suggestions for tone and approach, particularly when disagreeing with a reviewer.
Michael A. Hemphill, Yongsun Lee, Sarah Ragab, Jeremy Rinker, and Omari L. Dyson
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the process of developing an alternative physical education program using restorative justice practices as a transformative approach to social–emotional learning. Method: This study utilizes qualitative case study methods to examine the implementation process and short-term outcomes. Data sources include focus group interviews, student journals, observations, and reflective field notes. Trustworthiness of the findings are supported by triangulation, peer debriefings, prolonged engagement, and external program reviews. Results: The implementation of social and emotional learning was substantiated by student engagement with four class goals in which they aimed to participate in physical education as “champions,” “heroes,” “achievers,” and “peacemakers.” Restorative pedagogy included restorative chats, listening circles, community circles, and healing circles. Conclusion: This study suggests that transformative curriculum, such as restorative justice, offers a transformative approach to social and emotional learning that is applicable to physical education.
Francesco Campa, Matteo Levi Micheli, Matilde Pompignoli, Roberto Cannataro, Massimo Gulisano, Stefania Toselli, Gianpiero Greco, and Giuseppe Coratella
Purpose: To examine whether menstrual cycle affects body composition and bioimpedance vector analysis (BIVA) patterns, jumping and sprinting ability, and flexibility in elite soccer players. Methods: A total of 20 elite female soccer players (age: 23.8 [3.4] y, height: 1.63 [0.04] m, body mass: 61.4 [5.9] kg, and body mass index: 22.5 [2.4] kg/m2) were monitored during the early follicular and ovulatory phase across 2 consecutive menstrual cycles. Bioimpedance analysis was performed using foot-to-hand technology, and total body water and fat mass were determined by specific equations developed for athletes. Bioelectrical resistance and reactance were adjusted according to the BIVA procedures and plotted as a vector within the resistance–reactance graph. In addition, countermovement jump, 20-m sprint, and sit and reach were assessed. Results: A time effect (P < .05) was found for body mass, total body water, bioelectrical resistance and reactance, and flexibility. Specifically, body mass increased (P = .021) along with a gain in total body water (P = .001) from the ovulatory to the early follicular phase, while it decreased from the early follicular to the ovulatory phase during the second menstrual cycle. The BIVA vector shortened during the early follicular phases (P < .001). No change in jumping and sprinting capacity was observed (P > .05). Flexibility was impaired during the early follicular phases (P < .05). Conclusions: Specific bioelectrical impedance analysis and BIVA procedures are able to detect menstrual cycle–induced changes in body composition in elite soccer players. The early follicular phase resulted in fluid accumulations and BIVA vector shortening. In addition, while menstrual cycle did not affect performance, a fluctuation in flexibility was observed.
Jacqueline Martins Patatas, Jens De Rycke, Veerle De Bosscher, and Rafael Lima Kons
The literature suggests that the current athlete development models do not reflect the multifaceted developmental pathways in Paralympic sport. This study aimed to analyze how parasport athletes progress through developmental phases of an athletic career pathway by comparing differences in their trajectories based on the nature of the impairment (acquired or congenital), age, and sex. A total of 345 para-athletes representing 15 sports completed an online survey. Results showed that the developmental phases for athletes with acquired impairment are of shorter duration, taking 4.5 years to progress from the attraction to the elite phase, while athletes with congenital impairment take 6 years. Athletes with congenital impairment start in parasport approximately 8 years younger and win medals in international competitions 7 years earlier than athletes with acquired impairment. Insights gathered in this study have the potential to enhance further thinking toward the genesis of specific models of para-athlete development.