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Florane Pasquier, Robin Pla, Laurent Bosquet, Fabien Sauvet, Mathieu Nedelec, and

Purpose: Short sleep duration and poor sleep quality are common in swimmers. Sleep-hygiene strategies demonstrated beneficial effects on several sleep parameters. The present study assessed the impact of a multisession sleep-hygiene training course on sleep in elite swimmers. Methods: Twenty-eight elite swimmers (17 [2] y) participated. The sleep-hygiene strategy consisted of 3 interventions. Sleep was measured by actigraphy for 7 days before the beginning of the intervention (baseline), after the first collective intervention (postintervention), after the second collective intervention (postintervention 2), and, finally, after the individual intervention (postintervention 3). The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) was completed concurrently. Swimmers were classified into 2 groups: nonsomnolent (baseline ESS score ≤ 10, n = 13) and somnolent (baseline ESS score ≥ 11, n = 15). Results: All swimmers had a total sleep time of <8 hours per night. Sixty percent of swimmers were moderately morning type. Later bedtime, less time in bed, and total sleep time were observed in the somnolent group compared with the nonsomnolent group at baseline. An interaction between training course and group factors was observed for bedtime, with a significant advance in bedtime between baseline, postintervention 2, and postintervention 3 for the somnolent group. Conclusions: The present study confirms the importance of implementing sleep-hygiene strategies, particularly in athletes with an ESS score ≥11. A conjunction of individual and collective measures (eg, earlier bedtime, napping, and delaying morning training session) could favor the total sleep time achieved.

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Andrew W. Best, Amanda McGrosky, Zane Swanson, Rebecca Rimbach, Katie McConaughy, Joe McConaughy, Cara Ocobock, and Herman Pontzer

Continuous multiday ultramarathon competitions are increasingly popular and impose extreme energetic and nutritional demands on competitors. However, few data have been published on energy expenditure during these events. Here, we report doubly labeled water-derived measures of total energy expenditure (in kilocalories per day) and estimated physical activity level (PAL: total energy expenditure/basal metabolic rate) collected from five elite and subelite finishers (four males and one female, age 34.6 ± 4.9 years)—and nutritional intake data from the winner—of the Cocodona 250, a ∼402-km race in Arizona, and from a fastest-known-time record (one male, age 30 years) on the ∼1,315-km Arizona Trail. PAL during these events exceeded four times basal metabolic rate (Cocodona range: 4.34–6.94; Arizona Trail: 5.63). Combining the results with other doubly labeled water-derived total energy expenditure data from ultraendurance events show a strong inverse relationship between event duration and PAL (r 2 = .68, p < .0001). Cocodona race duration was inversely, though not significantly, associated with PAL (r 2 = .70, p = .08). Water turnover varied widely between athletes and was not explained by PAL or body mass. The Cocodona race winner met ∼53% of energy demand via dietary intake, 85.6% of which was carbohydrate, while ∼47% of energy demand was met via catabolism of body energy stores. Together, these results illustrate the energetic deficits incurred during competitive continuous multiday ultramarathon efforts and implicate macronutrient absorption and/or storage as key factors in ultramarathon performance.

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Gabriele Gallo, Manuel Mateo-March, Daniel Gotti, Ed Maunder, Roberto Codella, Piero Ruggeri, Emanuela Faelli, and Luca Filipas

Purpose: The aim of this study was to describe individual training characteristics, racing strategies, and periodization in preparation for the Tour de France in 2 world-class road cyclists finishing in the top 5 of the general classification. Methods: Week‐by‐week power meter training and racing data of 2 (A and B) road cyclists (age: 29 and 23 y; maximum oxygen consumption: 83 and 81 mL·min−1·kg−1; and relative 20‐min record power output: 6.9 and 6.5 W·kg−1) in the preparation phase (December–July/August) leading up to the Tour de France were retrospectively analyzed. Weekly volume and intensity distribution in power zones were considered. Results: Cyclists A and B completed 46 and 19 races, 22.5 (6.3) and 18.2 (5.1) h·wk−1, with a pyramidal intensity distribution of 81.0%–13.3%–5.7%, and 88.8%–7.9%–3.3% in zone 1–zone 2–zone 3. Cyclist B spent 14 days at altitude. Increased high-intensity volume and polarization index occurred during race weeks. During periods without racing, training intensity progressively increased. Strength training was performed during November and December but not during the following months. During tapering, total exercise volume and time at high intensity decreased. Conclusion: These data provide novel insights into the periodization of world-class road cyclists in advance of a top 5 placing in the Tour de France general classification.

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Aude S. Lefranc, Glenn K. Klute, and Richard R. Neptune

Gait asymmetry is a predictor of fall risk and may contribute to increased falls during pregnancy. Previous work indicates that pregnant women experience asymmetric joint laxity and pelvic tilt during standing and asymmetric joint moments and angles during walking. How these changes translate to other measures of gait asymmetry remains unclear. Thus, the purpose of this case study was to determine the relationships between pregnancy progression, subsequent pregnancies, and gait asymmetry. Walking data were collected from an individual during 2 consecutive pregnancies during the second and third trimesters and 6 months postpartum of her first pregnancy and the first, second, and third trimesters and 6 months postpartum of her second pregnancy. Existing asymmetries in step length, anterior–posterior (AP) impulses, AP peak ground reaction forces, lateral impulses, and joint work systematically increased as her pregnancy progressed. These changes in asymmetry may be attributed to pelvic asymmetry, leading to asymmetric hip flexor and extensor length, or due to asymmetric plantar flexor strength, as suggested by her ankle work asymmetry. Relative to her first pregnancy, she had greater asymmetry in step length, step width, braking AP impulse, propulsive AP impulse, and peak braking AP ground reaction force during her second pregnancy, which may have resulted from increased joint laxity.

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Ding Ding, Pedro C. Hallal, Loretta DiPietro, and Harold W. (Bill) Kohl III

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Leonardo Alex Volpato, Julio Cesar Costa, Wendell Arthur Lopes, Jeffer Eidi Sasaki, Catiana Leila Possamai Romanzini, Enio Ricardo Vaz Ronque, and Marcelo Romanzini

Background: Recent statistical approaches have allowed consideration of the integrated relationships between sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA) with different health outcomes. The present paper aimed to systematically review the literature and synthesize evidence about associations between hypothetical reallocations from SB to different PA intensities and cardiovascular risk factors in youth. Methods: A systematic search of 8 databases was performed. Observational studies with a population of children and/or adolescents and based on statistical analysis that investigated the associations between time reallocations from SB to PA and cardiovascular risk factors were included. Results: Twenty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Level of evidence (derived from cross-sectional studies) indicated that the reallocation from SB to moderate to vigorous PA was beneficially associated with adiposity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and cardiometabolic biomarkers in youth. Reallocation from SB to light PA was not associated with the analyzed outcomes. Associations derived from longitudinal studies were mostly inconclusive. Conclusion: Cardiovascular risk factors could be improved by increasing moderate to vigorous PA at the expense of time spent in SB in pediatric populations. Prospective studies or studies investigating the effects of reallocating sedentary bouts to PA are needed.

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Eliza E. Toth, Ferenc Ihász, Roberto Ruíz-Barquín, and Attila Szabo

Older adults face numerous unfavorable functional changes caused by aging, but many exhibit resilience, which helps them cope with challenges. Physical activity is positively associated with resilience. Therefore, this systematic literature review aimed to uncover the relationships between physical activity and resilience in older adults. We have analyzed three freely and openly available databases: (a) PubMed/Medline, (b) ScienceDirect, and (c) Google Scholar, which yielded 20 eligible articles based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Most studies (14) were cross-sectional, three were longitudinal, and three others used mindfulness-based or endurance-enhancing physical activity interventions. Their results revealed increased resilience even after short-duration and low-frequency interventions. Cross-sectional research results also support the positive relationship between physical activity and resilience in older adults, suggesting that the relationship might depend on exercise volume. Still, further research is needed to design interventions, understand the mechanism(s) involved in altering resilience, and maximize physical activity’s benefits in aging people.

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Mariana Wingood, Amy M. Linsky, Rebekah Harris, Patricia Bamonti, Jennifer Moye, and Jonathan F. Bean

In general, COVID-19-related adaptations that transitioned in-person assessments and interventions to a virtual format were not routinely evaluated. We aimed to conduct a process evaluation to examine the impact of COVID-19-related adaptations on a behavior change intervention designed to increase exercise adherence among Veterans with mobility difficulty. We used secondary data from a nonrandomized study to complete a process evaluation examining the intervention’s reach, recruitment, fidelity, dose delivered by physical therapists, and the dose received by the 14 participating Veterans. The physical therapist delivered 95% (133/140) of the study’s 10 sessions. Sessions with the lowest delivery dose included Sessions 1 and 10 (86%; n = 12/14). The elements with the lowest dose received included using an exercise journal and developing a postintervention plan (86%; n = 12/14). Our COVID-19 adaptations allowed us to provide our intervention to the majority (67%) of eligible participants without a negative impact on fidelity, dose delivered, or dose received.

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Xiaodong Zhang, Yuqian Lin, and Chengmeng Zhang

Social participation is crucial for enhancing senior’s well-being and promoting their integration into society. Using nationwide data investigated in China, this study explored the association between self-reported visual impairment, health level, and social participation among Chinese middle-aged old adults. It has been found that (a) the probability and frequency of social participation among middle-aged and older adults with self-reported vision loss were significantly lower than those without vision problems; (b) self-reported vision loss was negatively associated with self-rated health and mental health status, and both were positively associated with social participation; and (c) self-rated health and mental health played a mediating role between vision loss and social participation. The findings suggest that under the framework of active aging, universal vision screening programs and rehabilitation plans for the older adults with visual impairment are exceedingly significant to promote their participation in social activities, thereby enhancing their quality of life.

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Sabrina Gomez Souffront, Angeliki M. Mavrantza, and Marcelo Bigliassi

The present study sought to investigate the effects of a self-talk intervention on free-throw performance under pressure. The experimental manipulation was designed using a video from a social media platform. Thirty male college basketball players were randomly assigned into two groups (i.e., control and experimental). The experimental protocol incorporated three trials of three free throws each. Psychophysiological stress was assessed by use of heart rate variability. The illusion of pressure was created using arena recordings of large crowds along with instructions for participants to visualize a high-pressure scenario. The results indicate that the self-talk intervention was sufficient to improve free throw shooting accuracy during the postintervention phase. Short-term heart rate variability reduced significantly for the control group and remained relatively stable for the experimental group. Self-talk appears to influence free throw accuracy during situations of psychosocial stress by inhibiting the influence of negative thoughts on peripheral physiological reactions and movement automaticity.