Aim: A recent mental health in sport consensus statement advocates Keyes’ two continua model with an associated Mental Health Continuum (MHC) instrument to assess mental health in athletes. However, there remains statistically inconsistent usage of the MHC in athletes, so further exploration of the MHC’s psychometric factors is required. Methods: Athletes (N = 1,097) aged 32.63 (SD = 11.16) comprising 603 females (55.7%) and 478 males (44.3%), completed the 14-item MHC-Short Form, alongside validated measures of anxiety and depression. Five confirmatory factor analytic and bifactor models were developed based on extant research and theory. Results: Overall, a bifactor structure with a “general” positive mental health factor, and three specific factors (“hedonic well-being,” “social well-being,” and “psychological well-being”) fitted the data well and was deemed the superior model. Conclusion: A bifactor model of the MHC-Short Form is recommended comprising a composite score alongside specific factors of hedonic, social, and psychological well-being.
Psychometric Assessment of the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form in Athletes: A Bifactor Modeling Approach
Stephen Shannon, Mark Shevlin, and Gavin Breslin
Repeated Use of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Over the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Before Training Changes Visual Search and Improves Decision-Making Response Time in Soccer Athletes
Leonardo S. Fortes, Maicon R. Albuquerque, Heloiana K.C. Faro, Dalton de Lima-Júnior, Maria E.C. Ferreira, and Sebastião S. Almeida
The study aimed to analyze the effect of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex on soccer athletes’ decision making and visual search behavior. It was a single-blind, randomized, and experimental investigation. The 23 soccer athletes were pair-matched according to decision-making skill and then randomized into two groups: a-tDCS and sham. The decision making (during small-sided game and screen task) and visual search behavior were measured before and after the 8-week intervention. Only the a-tDCS group reduced response time in the decision-making screen task (p < .05). The a-tDCS group showed a higher number of fixations than sham group (p < .05) during the small-sided game. The a-tDCS group showed a lower duration of fixation than sham group (p < .05) during the small-sided game. Our results indicated that using a-tDCS over left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex changed visual search behavior and improved the response time of decision-making skill.
Sport Participation, Extracurricular Activity Involvement, and Psychological Distress: A Latent Class Analysis of Canadian High School Student-Athletes
Camille Sabourin, Stéphanie Turgeon, Laura Martin, Scott Rathwell, Mark Bruner, John Cairney, and Martin Camiré
Although psychological distress has been shown to increase during adolescence, participation in organized activities may have protective effects. The present study aimed to identify whether there is a relationship between high school student-athletes’ breadth of participation in organized activities and psychological distress, using a latent class analysis. Canadian adolescent-athletes (n = 930) in Grades 11 and 12 completed an online survey that measured: (a) high school sport participation, (b) community sport participation, (c) nonsport extracurricular activities participation, and (d) psychological distress. The latent class analysis indicated that a two-class model (i.e., Class 1 = narrower breadth, low distress; Class 2 = wider breadth, moderate distress) was most appropriate. Results indicated that despite the divergent probability of organized activity participation, participants in both classes had a low to moderate probability of presenting elevated levels of psychological distress. However, levels of psychological distress were still higher than other Canadian adolescent populations, suggesting that overscheduling could be of concern. Gender and time (i.e., prior/during COVID-19 pandemic) were significant covariates in the model.
Musings of a Transnational Intersectional U.K. Practitioner Psychologist
Intersectionality is a structure that analyzes how a person’s social and political identities intertwine creating different ways in which privilege and discrimination manifest. It examines the individual experiences and opportunities in everyday life. The following special issue musings describe the systems that have marginalized a woman of intersectional identity despite an extensive diverse professional career across national borders. Written through a lens of a diverse professional identity and a personal intertwined identity, these reflection musings highlight the author’s lack of visibility, fatigue, and struggle for belonging in a field and wider society that she perceives to have been exclusive and unwelcoming.
What Is Behind Disordered Eating Behaviors? An Exploratory Study With Female Adolescents From Individual Esthetic and Nonesthetic Sports
Carolina Paixão, Sara Oliveira, and Cláudia Ferreira
This study explored the differences in shame, perception of performance, the need to present a perfect body image, and disordered eating among 223 female athletes from esthetic (n = 114; M age = 14.30; SD age = 1.65; M yearsofpractice = 6.62) and nonesthetic (n = 109; M age = 14.75; SD age = 1.87; M yearsofpractice = 4.56) individual sports. Descriptive, t test, and correlational analyses were performed. Moreover, path analyses were conducted to examine the link between the variables. The two groups did not present significant differences in variables, except in perception of performance. The path model analyses explained 47% of disordered eating. Results suggested that individual characteristic of sports practice seems relevant in shame. This study suggests that female athletes from individual sports who experience inferiority tend to adopt perfectionist defensive strategies and engage in disordered eating behaviors. This study highlights the relevance of intervention and educational programs that promote more adaptative emotional regulation strategies in female athletes from individual sports.
Psychological Vulnerability Associated With Stress Coping Strategies in Japanese University Athletes
Shinji Yamaguchi, Yujiro Kawata, Yuka Murofushi, Nobuto Shibata, and Tsuneyoshi Ota
This study examined the stress coping strategies of athletes with high psychological vulnerability. The participants were 487 university athletes (mean age = 19.8 years, SD = 0.88, 153 women). Data were collected using the Vulnerability Scale for University Athletes and General Coping Questionnaire and analyzed by conducting a multivariate analysis of variance. The results showed significant relationships between vulnerability and coping strategies (r = .11−.39). Vulnerability was most strongly related to the emotional support seeking aspect of emotion-oriented coping (r = .39). There was no significant difference in cognitive reinterpretation (r = .07). Vulnerability had a stronger relationship with emotion-oriented than problem-oriented coping, and high (vs. low) vulnerability athletes had significantly higher emotion-oriented-coping scores. These results suggest that vulnerable athletes need to be provided with appropriate emotional support to cope with stressful situations, as they rely heavily on a stress management strategy focusing on emotion regulation.
Multicultural Training and Awareness Among Sport Psychology Practitioners
Rena M.G. Curvey, Shannon C. White, Emily A. Murphy, Travis R. Scheadler, Myles T. Englis, Laura L. Phelps, and Candice N. Hargons
Guided by an interpretivist–constructivist paradigm and phenomenological framework, this study explored sport psychology professionals’ lived experiences to better understand their multicultural training and competence within the field of sport psychology. Twelve sport psychology professionals participated in semistructured interviews from March 2020 to May 2020. The following four themes emerged: (a) a call to reform training programs, (b) a shift from multicultural competence to cultural humility, (c) professional and ethical responsibilities of sport psychology practitioners, and (d) reflexive practice and culturally sensitive interventions. Study findings support expanding multicultural training for students of sport psychology graduate programs and suggest that sport psychology professionals have an ethical responsibility to be culturally aware. Further study findings and clinical implications are discussed.
Gender Equity in Disability Sport: A Rapid Scoping Review
Diane M. Culver, Majidullah Shaikh, Danielle Alexander, and Karine Fournier
Aim: A scoping review was conducted to map the literature related to gender equity in disability sport. Design: Six databases relevant to the sport sciences were searched, yielding an initial 1,543 records; after two phases of screening and data extraction, 61 records were selected for synthesis. Descriptive statistics were generated on information related to the record contexts, approaches, and results. Qualitative descriptive analyses were used to group data inductively into themes in line with addressing the research question. Results: Most records examined the experiences, participation, and representation of adults in elite contexts. Insights across records pointed to gender inequities in participation and experience, often influenced by the intersection of ableist and masculinity notions. Limited research also pointed to strategies that can contribute to advancing gender equity. Conclusions: Implications were discussed to advance understandings of disability sport and enhance participation across levels (e.g., coaching, athletic) and contexts (e.g., elite/Paralympic, recreational).
I Would Not Trade It for the World: Black Women Student-Athletes, Activism, and Allyship in 2020–2021
DeAnne Davis Brooks and Rob Knox
Black women student-athlete activists at a historically white institution of higher education represent a group with unique lived experiences framed by intersecting identities. As student-activists, they are at risk for adverse mental health concerns associated with the emotional toils of fighting for racial justice. As Black female student-athletes at a historically white institution, they are also at risk for isolation. Acknowledging that race, class, and gender consistently intersect in sport is a necessary prerequisite for better mental health treatment, and for understanding Black women in sport and society. The purpose of this report is to identify the target groups’ needs from their perspectives as Black women student-athlete activists, for the purposes of understanding and serving them better. We present interviews with six Black female student-athlete activists at a historically white institution of higher education and three recommendations for sport psychology consultants positioned to be their allies.
The Prevalence of Emotional Exhaustion in Professional and Semiprofessional Coaches
Erik Lundkvist, Henrik Gustafsson, Daniel Madigan, Sören Hjälm, and Anton Kalén
The present study examined levels of emotional exhaustion, a key symptom of burnout, in Swedish professional and semiprofessional sport coaches in comparison to the normative values specified in the Maslach Burnout Inventory manual, and to the clinical cutoffs developed by Kleijweg, Verbraak, and Van Dijk. The sample contained 318 Swedish coaches (M age = 42.7 years, 12% female) working at least 50% full time away from both team (60%) and individual (40%) sports. Our study shows that, in general, coaches in this sample experience lower average levels of exhaustion than normative samples both regarding the Maslach Burnout Inventory and clinical cutoffs. Two groups of coaches did, however, stand out. Coaches living in single households as well as coaches working part time had higher risk of severe levels of emotional exhaustion. These results place coach exhaustion levels in relation to other occupations and highlight that in this sample, the coaching profession does not stand out as more emotionally exhausting than other occupations.