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Julinling Hu, Yixun Chen, Nanyan Li, Yufei Wang, Yuliang Zha, and Junmin Zhou

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between total physical activity and different dimensions of cognitive function (orientation, attention, and memory) among older adults in rural Sichuan, China. This cross-sectional study involved 715 older adults (average age of 72 years). Total PA was measured by the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly, and cognitive function was assessed by the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS) questionnaire. The multivariate linear regression analysis indicated that total PA and household PA were significantly associated with the overall Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status score (β = 0.143, p < .001; β = 0.115, p = .002, respectively), the orientation dimension (β = 0.142, p < .001; β = 0.131, p = .001, respectively), and the memory dimension (β = 0.179, p < .001; β = 0.134, p = .001, respectively). The study showed a positive association between total PA, household PA, and cognitive function in older adults, especially in the orientation dimension and the memory dimension of cognitive function.

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Mary C. Hidde, Mary E. Crisafio, Emma Gomes, Kate Lyden, and Heather J. Leach

Background: Accelerometers are frequently used to measure free-living physical activity and sleep in cancer survivors. To obtain valid data, participants must adhere to wear-time guidelines; therefore, understanding survivor’s preference may be critical when selecting an accelerometer. This study compared cancer survivors’ reported discomfort and interference, and wear-time compliance between a wrist-worn accelerometer and a thigh-worn accelerometer. Methods: This was a secondary data analysis. Cancer survivors (N = 52, mean age = 51.8 [13.0], 82.3% female) wore the Actiwatch-2 (wrist) and the activPAL (thigh) for 7 days, 24 hours per day. On day 7, participants completed a questionnaire to evaluate each accelerometer using a 1 to 5 Likert scale and open-ended questions. The Kolmogorov–Smirnov test evaluated differences in discomfort and interference. Paired samples t test evaluated differences in wear-time compliance. Open-ended responses were analyzed using thematic analysis methods. Results: No differences were observed in discomfort, interference, or wear-time compliance (P = .08). Qualitative analysis resulted in 2 themes: discomfort and ease of use and interference and adverse reaction. Interferences were primarily reported with the Actiwatch-2, whereas discomfort and ease were primarily reported with the activPAL. Conclusion: No significant differences were observed regarding discomfort, interference, and compliance. Results of this study can prepare researchers for common issues regarding accelerometer compliance, allowing researchers to offer resources to alleviate discomforts or interferences that may affect wear-time compliance.

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Robert W. Motl

The consequences of multiple sclerosis (MS), particularly gait and walking dysfunction, may obfuscate (i.e., make unclear in meaning) the measurement of physical activity using body-worn motion sensors, notably accelerometers. This paper is based on an invited keynote lecture given at the 8th International Conference on Ambulatory Monitoring of Physical Activity and Movement, June 2022, and provides an overview of studies applying accelerometers for the measurement of physical activity behavior in MS. The overview includes initial research uncovering a conundrum with the interpretation of activity counts from accelerometers as a measure of physical activity. It then reviews research on calibration of accelerometer output based on its association with energy expenditure in yielding a biologically based metric for studying physical activity in MS. The paper concludes with other applications and lessons learned for guiding future research on physical activity measurement using accelerometry in MS and other populations with neurological diseases and conditions.

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Andrea Ramírez Varela, Pedro C. Hallal, Juliana Mejía Grueso, Željko Pedišić, Deborah Salvo, Anita Nguyen, Bojana Klepac, Adrian Bauman, Katja Siefken, Erica Hinckson, Adewale L. Oyeyemi, Justin Richards, Elena Daniela Salih Khidir, Shigeru Inoue, Shiho Amagasa, Alejandra Jauregui, Marcelo Cozzensa da Silva, I-Min Lee, Melody Ding, Harold W. Kohl III, Ulf Ekelund, Gregory W. Heath, Kenneth E. Powell, Charlie Foster, Aamir Raoof Memon, Abdoulaye Doumbia, Abdul Roof Rather, Abdur Razzaque, Adama Diouf, Adriano Akira Hino, Albertino Damasceno, Alem Deksisa Abebe, Alex Antonio Florindo, Alice Mannocci, Altyn Aringazina, Andrea Backović Juričan, Andrea Poffet, Andrew Decelis, Angela Carlin, Angelica Enescu, Angélica María Ochoa Avilés, Anna Kontsevaya, Annamaria Somhegyi, Anne Vuillemin, Asmaa El Hamdouchi, Asse Amangoua Théodore, Bojan Masanovic, Brigid M. Lynch, Catalina Medina, Cecilia del Campo, Chalchisa Abdeta, Changa Moreways, Chathuranga Ranasinghe, Christina Howitt, Christine Cameron, Danijel Jurakić, David Martinez-Gomez, Dawn Tladi, Debrework Tesfaye Diro, Deepti Adlakha, Dušan Mitić, Duško Bjelica, Elżbieta Biernat, Enock M. Chisati, Estelle Victoria Lambert, Ester Cerin, Eun-Young Lee, Eva-Maria Riso, Felicia Cañete Villalba, Felix Assah, Franjo Lovrić, Gerardo A. Araya-Vargas, Giuseppe La Torre, Gloria Isabel Niño Cruz, Gul Baltaci, Haleama Al Sabbah, Hanna Nalecz, Hilde Liisa Nashandi, Hyuntae Park, Inés Revuelta-Sánchez, Jackline Jema Nusurupia, Jaime Leppe Zamora, Jaroslava Kopcakova, Javier Brazo-Sayavera, Jean-Michel Oppert, Jinlei Nie, John C. Spence, John Stewart Bradley, Jorge Mota, Josef Mitáš, Junshi Chen, Kamilah S Hylton, Karel Fromel, Karen Milton, Katja Borodulin, Keita Amadou Moustapha, Kevin Martinez-Folgar, Lara Nasreddine, Lars Breum Christiansen, Laurent Malisoux, Leapetswe Malete, Lorelie C. Grepo-Jalao, Luciana Zaranza Monteiro, Lyutha K. Al Subhi, Maja Dakskobler, Majed Alnaji, Margarita Claramunt Garro, Maria Hagströmer, Marie H. Murphy, Matthew  Mclaughlin, Mercedes Rivera-Morales, Mickey Scheinowitz, Mimoza Shkodra, Monika Piątkowska, Moushumi Chaudhury, Naif Ziyad Alrashdi, Nanette Mutrie, Niamh Murphy, Norhayati Haji Ahmad, Nour A. Obeidat, Nubia Yaneth Ruiz Gómez, Nucharapon Liangruenrom, Oscar Díaz Arnesto, Oscar Flores-Flores, Oscar Incarbone, Oyun Chimeddamba, Pascal Bovet, Pedro Magalhães, Pekka Jousilahti, Piyawat Katewongsa, Rafael Alexander Leandro Gómez, Rawan Awni Shihab, Reginald Ocansey, Réka Veress, Richard Marine, Rolando Carrizales-Ramos, Saad Younis Saeed, Said El-Ashker, Samuel Green, Sandra Kasoma, Santiago Beretervide, Se-Sergio Baldew, Selby Nichols, Selina Khoo, Seyed Ali Hosseini, Shifalika Goenka, Shima Gholamalishahi, Soewarta Kosen, Sofie Compernolle, Stefan Paul Enescu, Stevo Popovic, Susan Paudel, Susana Andrade, Sylvia Titze, Tamu Davidson, Theogene Dusingizimana, Thomas E. Dorner, Tracy L. Kolbe-Alexander, Tran Thanh Huong, Vanphanom Sychareun, Vera Jarevska-Simovska, Viliami Kulikefu Puloka, Vincent Onywera, Wanda Wendel-Vos, Yannis Dionyssiotis, and Michael Pratt

Background: Physical activity (PA) surveillance, policy, and research efforts need to be periodically appraised to gain insight into national and global capacities for PA promotion. The aim of this paper was to assess the status and trends in PA surveillance, policy, and research in 164 countries. Methods: We used data from the Global Observatory for Physical Activity (GoPA!) 2015 and 2020 surveys. Comprehensive searches were performed for each country to determine the level of development of their PA surveillance, policy, and research, and the findings were verified by the GoPA! Country Contacts. Trends were analyzed based on the data available for both survey years. Results: The global 5-year progress in all 3 indicators was modest, with most countries either improving or staying at the same level. PA surveillance, policy, and research improved or remained at a high level in 48.1%, 40.6%, and 42.1% of the countries, respectively. PA surveillance, policy, and research scores decreased or remained at a low level in 8.3%, 15.8%, and 28.6% of the countries, respectively. The highest capacity for PA promotion was found in Europe, the lowest in Africa and low- and lower-middle-income countries. Although a large percentage of the world’s population benefit from at least some PA policy, surveillance, and research efforts in their countries, 49.6 million people are without PA surveillance, 629.4 million people are without PA policy, and 108.7 million live in countries without any PA research output. A total of 6.3 billion people or 88.2% of the world’s population live in countries where PA promotion capacity should be significantly improved. Conclusion: Despite PA is essential for health, there are large inequalities between countries and world regions in their capacity to promote PA. Coordinated efforts are needed to reduce the inequalities and improve the global capacity for PA promotion.

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Sumayyah B. Musa, Ryan Ellis, Brianne Chafe, Shelby L. Sturrock, Rebecca Ann Maher, Kim Cullen, and Daniel Fuller

Background : This paper examined whether the criterion validity of step count (SC), energy expenditure (EE), and heart rate (HR) varied across studies depending on the average age, body mass index (BMI), and predominant gender of participants. Methods : Data from 1536 studies examining the validity of various wearable devices were used. Separate multilevel regression models examined the associations among age, gender, and BMI with device criterion validity assessed using mean absolute percent error (MAPE) at the study level. Results : MAPE values were reported in 970 studies for SC, 328 for EE, and 238 for HR, respectively. There were several significant differences in MAPE between age, gender, and BMI categories for SC, EE, and HR. SC MAPE was significantly different for older adults compared with adults. Compared with studies among normal-weight populations, MAPE was greater among studies with overweight samples for SC, HR, and EE. Comparing studies with more women than men, MAPE was significantly greater for EE and HR. Conclusions : There are important differences in the criterion validity of commercial wearable devices across studies of varying ages, BMIs, and genders. Few studies have examined differences in error between different age groups, particularly for EE and HR.

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Helena M. Blumen, Emmeline Ayers, Cuiling Wang, Anne F. Ambrose, Oshadi Jayakody, and Joe Verghese

This randomized controlled trial (NCT03475316) examined the relative efficacy of 6 months of social ballroom dancing and treadmill walking on a composite executive function score, generated from digit symbol substitution test, flanker interference, and walking while talking tasks. Brain activation during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) versions of these executive function tasks were secondary outcomes. Twenty-five dementia-at-risk older adults (memory impairment screen score of ≥3 to ≤6 and/or an Alzheimer’s disease-8 Dementia Screening Interview of ≥1) were randomized in June 2019 to March 2020—16 completed the intervention before study termination due to the COVID-19 (eight in each group). Composite executive function scores improved post-intervention in both groups, but there was no evidence for between-group differences. Social dancing, however, generated greater improvements on digit symbol substitution test than treadmill walking. No intervention-related differences were observed in brain activation—although less hippocampal atrophy (tertiary) was observed following social dancing than treadmill walking. These preliminary findings are promising but need to be confirmed in future large-scale and sufficiently powered randomized controlled trials.

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Noopur Singh, Esther Sulkers, Hylke W. Van Dijk, Robbert Sanderman, and Adelita V. Ranchor

Long-term physical activity (PA) maintenance is challenging for older adults. Equipping older adults with strategies to support long-term PA maintenance can be an effective way to tackle this problem. Moreover, there is a lack of studies regarding long-term PA maintenance among older adults from non-Western settings. This qualitative research is one of the first studies conducted in an Indian context that explores the strategies developed and utilized by older adults who have successfully maintained their PA for the long term (>1 year) in their home settings. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with 19 older adults, and data were analyzed using an inductive reflexive thematic analysis approach. This article reports five strategies of PA maintenance, together comprising 13 substrategies. This study highlights the importance of using strategies to support the long-term maintenance of PA among older adults in India. However, these strategies would also be useful in other sociocultural contexts.

Open access

Alexis Lion, Anne Vuillemin, Florian Léon, Charles Delagardelle, and Aurélie van Hoye

Background: Our study investigated the effect of elite sport on physical activity (PA) practice in the general population. Methods: Structured Boolean searches were conducted across 5 electronic databases (PubMed, JSTOR, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, and PsycInfo) from January 2000 to August 2021. Peer-reviewed studies in English were included if the effects of hosting elite sport events, elite sport success, and elite sport role modeling on PA/sport practice in the general population were measured. Results: We identified 12,563 articles and included 36 articles. Most studies investigated the effect of hosting elite sport events (n = 27), followed by elite sport success (n = 16) and elite sport role modeling (n = 3). Most studies did not observe a positive effect of hosting elite sport events, elite sport success, or elite sport role modeling on PA/sport practice in the general population. No evidence of a lagged effect of elite sport was observed. No evidence of elite sport effects was observed according to age range and geographical scale. Conclusion: There is no evidence supporting the effect of elite sport in increasing PA or sport participation in the general population. Decision makers and policymakers should be aware of this and invest in strategies such as those recommended by the World Health Organization.

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James O. Brown, Alex Chatburn, David L. Wright, and Maarten A. Immink

Posttraining meditation has been shown to promote wakeful memory stabilization of explicit motor sequence information in learners who are experienced meditators. We investigated the effect of single-session mindfulness meditation on wakeful and sleep-dependent forms of implicit motor memory consolidation in meditation naïve adults. Immediately after training with a target implicit motor sequence, participants (N = 20, eight females, 23.9 ± 3.3 years) completed either a 10-min mindfulness meditation (N = 10) or a control listening task before exposure to task interference induced by training with a novel implicit sequence. Target sequence performance was tested following 5-hr wakeful and 15-hr postsleep periods. Bayesian inference was applied to group comparisons of mean reaction time (RT) changes across training, interference, wakeful, and postsleep timepoints. Relative to control conditions, posttraining meditation reduced RT slowing between target sequence training and interference sequence introduction (BF10 [Bayes factors] = 6.61) and supported RT performance gains over the wakeful period (BF10 = 8.34). No group differences in postsleep RT performance were evident (BF10 = 0.38). These findings illustrate that posttraining mindfulness meditation expedites wakeful, but not sleep-dependent, offline learning with implicit motor sequences. Previous meditation experience is not required to obtain wakeful consolidation gains from posttraining mindfulness meditation.

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Debbie Ann Loh, Noran Naqiah Hairi, Farizah Mohd Hairi, Devi Peramalah, Shathanapriya Kandiben, Mohd Alif Idham Abd Hamid, Awang Bulgiba, Mushtahid Salam, Mas Ayu Said, Hussein Rizal, Mahmoud Danaee, and Wan Yuen Choo

This study aims to determine the effectiveness of a multicomponent exercise and therapeutic lifestyle (CERgAS) intervention at improving gait speed among older people in an urban poor setting in Malaysia. A total of 249 participants were divided into the intervention (n = 163) and control (n = 86) groups. The mean (SD) age of participants was 67.83 (6.37) and consisted of 88 (35.3%) males and 161 (64.7%) females. A generalized estimating equation with an intention-to-treat analysis was used to measure gait speed at four time points, baseline (T0), 6 weeks (T1), 3 months postintervention (T2), and 6 months postintervention (T3). The results showed significant changes for time between T0 and T3 (mean difference = 0.0882, p = .001), whereas no significant association were found for group (p = .650) and interaction (p = .348) effects. A 6-week intervention is inadequate to improve gait speed. Future efforts should introduce physical activity monitoring and increase exercise duration, frequency, and intensity.