Background: The Test of Gross Motor Development–3 (TGMD-3) is used to assess locomotor (LOCS) and ball (BS) skills in children. This test provides relevant information for evaluating learning and determining teaching efficacy. However, conducting and coding the test is time consuming. A screening form may improve its usage in specific settings and populations. Purpose: This study aimed to develop a screening form for the TGMD-3-SF and examine its validity and reliability. Method: We assessed 1,192 3-to-10-year-old children; 772 children completed the TGMD-3 and 420 the TGMD-3-SF; 114 children were retested for temporal stability and 300 for criterion validity. Results: We found appropriate results for the two-factors model, LOCS (gallop, hop, and skip) and BS (one-hand strike, kick, and overhand throw), RMSEA = .025, comparative-fit index = .99, and Tukey–Lewis index = .99; internal consistency (LOCS, α = .60; BS, α = .71); item validity (LOCS, r = .43, p < .001; BS, r = .47, p < .001); interrater (ICC = .86–.99), intrarater (ICC = .61–.92), test–retest (LOCS, ICC =.87; BS, ICC = .78) reliability, and concurrent validity (LOCS, r = .89, p < .01; BS, r = .90, p < .001). Conclusions: The TGMD-3-SF is valid and reliable for assessing children’s gross motor development.
Nadia Cristina Valentini, Glauber Carvalho Nobre, Larissa Wagner Zanella, Keila G. Pereira, Maicon Rodrigues Albuquerque, and Mary Elizabeth Rudisill
Siobhan K. Fitzpatrick and Janine V. Olthuis
American student-athletes (SAs) are at heightened risk for hazardous alcohol consumption compared with their nonathlete peers. However, little is known about this risk or the influence of psychosocial predictors on drinking behavior among Canadian SAs. This study compared rates of alcohol use across Canadian SAs and nonathletes and investigated whether the use of athlete-specific psychosocial predictors can improve the prediction of alcohol use outcomes in SAs. Participants (179 varsity athletes and 366 nonathletes) completed anonymous self-report questionnaires. Results suggest that Canadian athletes are at a heightened risk for experiencing alcohol-related problems compared with nonathletes, with general psychosocial predictors explaining the majority of variance in SA alcohol use. However, and quite notably, athlete-specific positive reinforcement motives predicted SA binge drinking. This research provides some of the first evidence of drinking-related problems among Canadian SAs and supports the potential use of preventative efforts to help SAs develop safe strategies for alcohol use.
Carrie B. Scherzer, Jeremy Trenchuk, Meaghan Peters, and Robert Mazury
Athletes can be at elevated risk for developing eating disorders, the effects of which can be devastating. Few researchers have examined the influence of a predisposition toward an eating disorder on athletic injury. Exercise dependence might bridge the gap toward understanding this relationship. This study sought to examine the relationship between predisposition toward an eating disorder and exercise dependence and looked at both as predictors of athletic injury. College students (n = 132) completed the Eating Disorders Inventory and the Exercise Dependence Questionnaire, as well as provided demographic, activity, and injury information. Subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory and Exercise Dependence Questionnaire were significant predictors of having at least one athletic injury in the preceding year. These findings suggest that both predisposition toward an eating disorder and exercise dependence may be contributing factors to injury.
Ben William Strafford, Keith Davids, Jamie Stephen North, and Joseph Antony Stone
Contemporary learning and development models have identified parkour-style training as a vehicle for athlete enrichment. However, perceptions of team-sport coaches and their receptiveness to such models of athlete enrichment have not been investigated and remain unclear. To explore how parkour-style training could be integrated into athlete development programs in team sports, we interviewed sport practitioners to explore their preexisting knowledge of parkour and their perceptions on its potential applications. Experienced talent development (n = 10) and strength and conditioning coaches (n = 10) were interviewed using an open-ended, semistructured approach with a two-stage thematic analysis being conducted to identify themes. Three dimensions were identified: coaches’ general perceptions of parkour, potential applications of parkour, and feasibility of integrating parkour into athlete development programs. Participant perceptions revealed that: (a) parkour activities were viewed as supplementary activities to enrich sport-specific training routines, including use of obstacle courses and/or tag elements; (b) parkour-style obstacle environments needed to be scalable to allow individual athletes and coaches to manipulate object orientation and tasks using soft play and traditional gym equipment; and (c) the implementation of continued professional development opportunities, athlete-centered approaches to learning designs in sport, and coach–parent forums were recommended to support the integration of parkour-style training.
Marziyeh Amraei and Elaheh Azadian
This study aims to investigate the effect of age and urban and rural living environments on children’s actual and perceived motor competence. To that end, 320 female students aged 8–12 years were selected through random cluster sampling. The perceived motor competence of the participants was assessed using Marsh’s Physical Self-Description Questionnaire, and their actual motor competence was measured by the Test of Gross Motor Development-3. The results showed significant differences between urban and rural girls in perceived and actual motor competence (p < .05). However, age did not make any significant difference in motor competence (p > .05). The most significant differences in actual and perceived motor competence between urban and rural girls were observed in girls aged 8 and 10 (p < .05). The findings also indicated that rural children performed better in actual motor skills, especially ball skills. Therefore, based on the findings, it was concluded that the rural environment could have a greater impact on actual motor competence.
Vitor P. Lopes and Luis P. Rodrigues
Understanding the mechanisms associated with engaging in physical activity (PA) is crucial for its promotion. The aim was to analyze the relationship between motor competence (MC) and PA and the role of physical fitness (PF). Participants were N = 1,064 children of both sexes (n = 530 girls) and 7.87 ± 1.17 years of age. MC was assessed with KörperkoordinationTest für Kinder. PF was assessed with 50-yard dash, 1-mile run/walk, and standing long jump. PA was assessed with a questionnaire. Mediation and moderation were determined according to Baron and Kenny using Sobel test for indirect effect and using PROCESS (version 3.4). Mediation results showed perfect mediation in girls but not in boys and not when all participants were included in the analysis. The linear moderation was significant for all participants and for boys and girls apart. However, the results of conditional effects of MC at the 16th, 50th, and 84th percentile of the PF, which became significant at the 50th percentile for all participants and for boys, were not significant in girls. In conclusion, perfect mediation seems to exist in girls but not in boys. In boys, the relationship between MC and PA seems conditioned by the PF levels.
Bradley Beseler, Kathleen Williams, and Mandy S. Plumb
Background: Roberton’s movement components are used to assess fundamental motor skills as segmental developmental sequences. In 1991, Haywood, Williams and VanSant determined that original developmental sequences proposed for the backswing levels of the overarm throw did not encompass all ages. Their study of older throwers identified two new qualitatively different levels, with half the participants categorized at two new levels. This investigation extended the initial validation across a wider age range. Method: Two hundred and twenty-eight primary, high school, university students, and adults were instructed to make five throws for maximum force using their dominant hand. Throws were recorded with side and rear cameras synchronized for analysis. Prelongitudinal screening was used to analyze the Haywood et al. revisions of the Langendorfer developmental sequence. Results: Five of the six levels of Haywood’s sequence were suitable for assessing throwers 8 years of age through to adulthood. More study is needed of one less advanced pattern. Lower level throws corresponded to lower velocities; higher level throws were faster, suggesting the sequence was properly ordered. More males than females were classified at higher levels, demonstrating typical gender differences. Discussion: The categories hypothesized for the backswing action of the overarm throw were valid descriptors of differences observed across ages, from childhood to adulthood. Additional study of Levels 3 and 4 is warranted to clarify their order.
Bridget C. Foley, Mathew McLaughlin, Sarah Edney, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam, Jessica Seymour, Louisa R. Peralta, Angela Douglas, Simon Rosenbaum, Holly Thorpe, Janice Atkin, Tim Olds, and Ding Ding
The Australasian Society for Physical Activity aims to advance the science and practice of physical activity in Australia, New Zealand, the Pacific Islands, East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Oceania. Fun, enjoyment, and cross-disciplinary discourse are important to ensure the network of physical activity professionals and our collective voice continues to grow. In May 2021, Australasian Society for Physical Activity’s Early Career Network curated an engaging online Physical Activity Debate attended by 206 professionals. This commentary provides a synopsis of the debate and the central arguments presented by the affirmative and negatives teams. The authors describe the debate format and interactive design of the online Physical Activity Debate to provide insights for future online events that aim to boost interaction among physical activity professionals from various disciplines.