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Comparison of Participation in Strength Activity Among People With and Without Disabilities: 2013–2017 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

Willie Leung, Ming-Chih Sung, Jinhyun Lee, Jaehun Jung, Nicole Fiscella, and Lu Shi

Background: The current physical activity guidelines recommend engagement in strength activities at least 2 days per week. Currently, there is a lack of literature examining strength activities among people with disabilities. The purpose of this study is to estimate and compare the prevalence of engagement in strength activities and adherence to strength activity guidelines among adults with and without disabilities in the United States. Methods: A total of 1,005,644 adults (18–80 y old) with and without disabilities from the 2013 to 2017 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were included in this secondary data analysis. Descriptive analyses were performed to describe the prevalence of strength activity behaviors of adults with and without disabilities. Logistic and Poisson regression models were performed to evaluate the relative contribution of disability status on strength activity behaviors. Results: A higher proportion of participants without disabilities (46.42%, 95% CI, 46.18–46.65) reported engaging in strength activities compared with participants with disabilities (30.68%, 95% CI, 30.29–31.08; P < .01). Participants with disabilities were less likely to engage in strength activities (odds ratio = 0.51, 95% CI, 0.50–0.52; adjusted odds ratio = 0.75, 95% CI, 0.73–0.77) and meet strength activity guidelines (odds ratio = 0.56, 95% CI, 0.54–0.57; adjusted odds ratio = 0.75, 95% CI, 0.73–0.77) than participants without disabilities. Conclusion: Experiencing a disability is associated with lower engagement in strength activities; thus, it is important to identify effective and efficient approaches to promoting strength activities among people with disabilities.

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Promotion of Physical Activity by Québec Primary Care Physicians: What Has Changed in the Last Decade?

Suzanne Laberge, Véronique Gosselin, Kim Lestage, Miguel Chagnon, and Claude Guimond

Objective: This study aimed to assess the changes in the frequency of physical activity (PA) counseling and in the predictors of primary care PA promotion in Québec primary care physicians (PCPs) between 2010 and 2020. Methods: In 2010, we conducted a survey among Québec PCPs. Questions included: frequency of promoting PA to patients, perceived barriers, needs to improve PA promotion practice, frequency of PCPs’ PA practice, and sociodemographic information. In 2020, we took over the 2010 questionnaire to document the evolution of the PA promotion practice. Results: The proportion of PCPs discussing PA with their patients significantly increased (P < .05) in 2020 for the following health conditions: depression, low back pain, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cancer; it declined (P < .05) for overweight patients, those with metabolic syndrome, and in primary prevention. Collaboration with PA professionals was the major need identified, and it increased in 2020. PCPs’ own practice of PA was a predictor of PA promotion in 2010 (odds ratio = 6.679; P < .001) and in 2020 (odds ratio  = 6.679; P < .001). In both 2010 and in 2020, older or more experienced PCPs were more likely to discuss PA with their patients without diagnosed diseases than younger ones or those with less experience. Conclusions: Over the last 10 years, there has been a significant increase in PCPs promoting PA in Québec; however, it has been mainly oriented toward secondary prevention. It is concerning that PA counseling in primary prevention has declined, notably among younger PCPs. The stronger claim for closer collaboration with kinesiologists suggests that PCPs are in favor of an interprofessional strategy, namely collaboration with PA specialists.

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Analysis of Changes in Physical Fitness in Children and Adolescents (11–15 Years) From Kraków (Poland) During COVID-19 Pandemic

Paulina Artymiak, Magdalena Żegleń, and Łukasz Kryst

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has posed a threat to society worldwide. The aim of the study was to analyze changes in the physical fitness of 11- to 15-year-olds during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Cross-sectional research was conducted in randomly selected schools in Kraków (Poland) during the years 2020 and 2022. The study group included 1635 adolescents aged 11–15 years. The results of fitness tests such as flexibility, standing broad jump, handgrip strength, overhead medicine ball throw, shuttle run (10 × 5 m), and 30-second sit-ups were analyzed. Body height and weight measurements were also taken. The standing broad jump and handgrip strength were normalized. A statistical analysis was performed to compare the differences between groups using 2-way analysis of variance with the Tukey HSD post hoc test or Kruskal–Wallis test. Results: The test results revealed a deterioration decrease in sit-ups, standing broad jump, shuttle run, and normalized standing broad jump in both sexes. Furthermore, the test results among girls showed a decrease in overhead medicine ball throw and flexibility. An increase in test results of both sexes was noticed in handgrip strength of the right and left hand. Among boys in 2022, the results were better in the flexibility test and overhead medicine ball throw compared with their peers from 2020. Conclusion: This study indicates a decrease in overall physical fitness in adolescents. The observed results may be associated with a decrease in physical activity, changes in nutrition, and restrictions imposed during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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Cultural, Linguistic, and Geographical Diversity of Participants in Australian Physical Activity Research Studies: A Systematic Review

Stephen Gilbert, Alastair Jordan, Ding Ding, Anne Tiedemann, Catherine Sherrington, and Marina De Barros Pinheiro

Background: The Australian population is highly diverse in terms of cultural heritage, languages spoken, and geographical dispersion. Health outcomes are often worse among these culturally, linguistically, and geographically diverse populations, and this is reflected in rates of physical activity participation, with people from these groups often engaging in insufficient physical activity for health benefits. This research aimed to investigate if physical activity intervention studies conducted in Australia were (1) designed to recruit culturally, linguistically, and geographically diverse participants and (2) recruiting culturally, linguistically, and geographically diverse participants. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of physical activity intervention studies conducted in adults in Australia between 2015 and November 2022. Information relevant to inclusivity in study recruitment methods and diversity of recruited participants was extracted. Results: We identified and extracted data from 371 studies, of which 98 were protocol papers for which no follow-up data was available. Only 26 studies (7%) included methods to recruit culturally or linguistically diverse participants. Most studies (189, 51%) recruited participants from major city locations, with few studies recruiting from more remote locations. No studies included recruitment from very remote regions. Information on cultural, linguistic, or geographic diversity of participants recruited to physical activity studies was provided by 109 studies (40% of studies including results) with the majority recruiting White, English-speakers from major cities. Conclusions: Few Australian physical activity studies are designed to recruit culturally, linguistically, and geographically diverse participants. Due to limited reporting of the diversity of participants, comparisons with population-representative data are unreliable.

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Increasing Health Equity for Postpartum Women Through Physical Activity

Corliss Bean and Iris Lesser

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Physical Activity, Long-COVID, and Inactivity: A Detrimental Endless Loop

Giuseppe Lippi, Camilla Mattiuzzi, and Fabian Sanchis-Gomar

The risk of developing medium- and long-term sequelae after recovery from COVID-19 is validated. Long-COVID burden represents a major health care issue, thus paving the way to effective prevention and/or treatment measures. Physical activity prevents many human pathologies, including COVID-19. Being physically active before and immediately after a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection substantially lowers the risk of developing long-COVID. In addition, long-COVID is an important cause of physical inactivity. Physically inactive individuals are at increased risk of developing long-COVID, while patients with long-COVID are more likely to reduce their physical activity levels after recovering from the acute infection, with the risk of generating a continuous loop. This harmful interaction needs to be recognized by public health institutions, and the adoption of physical activity as a routine clinical practice in all individuals after a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection needs to be proactively promoted.

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The Impact of Removing the 10-Minute Bout Requirement and of Different Survey Administration Methods on National Physical Activity Estimates in Austria

Sylvia Titze, Tessa Strain, Philipp Wagner, Anna Schuster, Jasmin Karner, and Thomas E. Dorner

Background: Monitoring survey methods, as well as movement recommendations, evolves over time. These changes can make trend observations over time difficult. The aim of this study was to examine the differences between 2 computer-assisted survey administration methods and the effect of the omission of the 10-minute minimum bout requirement in physical activity (PA) questions on PA outcomes. Methods: We used data from the second Austrian PA Surveillance System for 2998 adults (18–64 y), applying computer-assisted personal interviewing and computer-assisted web interviewing. Within the computer-assisted web interviewing sample only, we added PA questions without the 10-minute requirement. Quantile and logistic regressions were applied. Results: Between computer-assisted web interviewing and computer-assisted personal interviewing, within the computer-assisted personal interviewing sample, we found lower PA estimates in the leisure domain and work and household domain, but not in the travel domain, and no significant difference in the proportion of people meeting the PA recommendations. In all 3 PA domains, the median minutes did not differ when assessed with or without the 10-minute requirement. However, the percentage participation in the travel domain and work and household domain performing >0 minutes per week PA was higher when there was no 10-minute requirement. The proportion of people meeting the Austrian aerobic recommendation for adults when computed with or without the 10-minute requirement did not differ. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the omission of the 10-minute requirement does not seem to result in marked differences in PA estimates or the proportion of adults meeting the recommendations.

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The Legacy of an All-Around Physical Activity and Health Scientist: Harold W. (Bill) Kohl III

Ashley Cathro, Deanivea Mendes Felix, Otávio Amaral de Andrade Leão, Susana Lopez, Zijian Lu, Pedro Gustavo Machado, Diana Morales, Francisco Timbó de Paiva Neto, Ana Selzer, Anne Tang, Rafael Miranda Tassitano, Maria Cecilia Marinho Tenório, Kaiyue Zhang, Wenbo Zhao, and Pedro C. Hallal

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Volume 21 (2024): Issue 3 (Mar 2024)

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Association Between Leisure-Time Physical Activity and Occupation Activity Level, National Health Interview Survey—United States, 2020

Jasmine Y. Nakayama, Miriam E. Van Dyke, Tyler D. Quinn, and Geoffrey P. Whitfield

Background: Physical activity for any purpose counts toward meeting Physical Activity Guidelines (PAG). However, national surveillance systems traditionally focus on leisure-time physical activity. There is an incomplete understanding of the association between meeting PAG in leisure time and occupation activity level among US workers. Methods: We used cross-sectional 2020 National Health Interview Survey data to examine US adults aged 18–64 years who worked the week before the survey (n = 14,814). We estimated the proportion meeting aerobic and muscle-strengthening PAG in leisure time by occupation activity level (low, intermediate, and high). Using logistic regression, we examined the association between meeting PAG in leisure time and occupation activity level, adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics and stratified by hours worked. We compared the sociodemographic characteristics of adults working ≥40 hours (the previous week) in high-activity occupations to those in low- or intermediate-activity occupations. Results: Adults working in high-activity occupations were less likely to meet PAG in leisure time (26.1% [24.3–28.1]) versus those in low-activity (30.6% [29.1–32.2], P < .01) or intermediate-activity (32.4% [30.8–34.2]) occupations. In stratified, adjusted models, adults working ≥40 hours in low- and intermediate-activity occupations were 13% and 20%, respectively, more likely to meet PAG in leisure time versus those in high-activity occupations. Among those working ≥40 hours, adults in high-activity occupations were more likely to be Hispanic or Latino, male, younger, and have a high school education or lower compared with those in less active occupations. Conclusion: Traditional surveillance may underestimate meeting PAG among people working in high-activity occupations, potentially disproportionately affecting certain groups.