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Volume 12 (2023): Issue 2 (May 2023)

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Overcoming the “Ostrich Effect”: A Narrative Review on the Incentives and Consequences of Questionable Research Practices in Kinesiology

Nicholas B. Tiller and Panteleimon Ekkekakis

Increasing transparency and openness in science is an ongoing endeavor, one that has stimulated self-reflection and reform in many fields. However, kinesiology and its related disciplines are among those exhibiting an “ostrich effect” and a reluctance to acknowledge their methodological shortcomings. Notwithstanding several high-profile cases of scientific misconduct, scholars in the field are frequently engaged in questionable research practices (QRPs) such as biased experimental designs, inappropriate statistics, and dishonest/inexplicit reporting. To advance their careers, researchers are also “gaming the system” by manipulating citation metrics and publishing in predatory and/or pay-to-publish journals that lack robust peer review. The consequences of QRPs in the discipline may be profound: from increasing the false positivity rate to eroding public trust in the very institutions tasked with informing public health policy. But what are the incentives underpinning misconduct and QRPs? And what are the solutions? This narrative review is a consciousness raiser that explores (a) the manifestations of QRPs in kinesiology; (b) the excessive publication pressures, funding pressures, and performance incentives that are likely responsible; and (c) possible solutions for reform.

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The Köhler Motivation Gain Effect With Exercise Tasks: A Meta-Analysis

Stephen Samendinger, Christopher R. Hill, Soyeon Ahn, and Deborah L. Feltz

The purpose of this meta-analysis was to examine the Köhler motivation effect in partnered dyads (conjunctive task structure) during exercise. This preregistered meta-analysis followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and included 19 (total sample size N = 1,912) primary, peer-reviewed research articles that have reported the effectiveness of the Köhler effect paradigm (with a no-partner control condition) in exercise tasks on the outcome variable of intensity or persistence of effort. The overall motivation gain effect was statistically significant, g ¯ ppc = 0 . 91 (SE = 0.12), suggesting a significantly higher performance gain in conjunctive partnered exercise groups compared with individual exercise. The large effect was moderated by the performance-dependent variable (persistence and intensity), mean participant age, and exercise partner type (human and software generated). There appears to be strong support for the Köhler motivation gain paradigm as a potential to help individuals improve their effort in exercise settings.

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Systematic Review of the Coach–Athlete Relationship From the Coaches’ Perspective

Keith McShan and E. Whitney G. Moore

The purpose of this study was to systematically review the variables associated with the coach–athlete relationship (CAR) from the coaches’ perspective. Three databases were searched; 57 studies published between January 2000 and May 2021 met the inclusion criteria. Correlates (n = 35) were grouped into three categories: coach variables, athlete variables, and coaching behaviors. Variables positively associated with the coaches’ perspective of the CAR included coaching satisfaction, the teaching of life skills, and engaging in need-supportive behaviors. Negative correlates included coaching burnout, athletes’ avoidant attachment style, and coaches’ controlling behaviors. Aside from coach satisfaction, many of the relationships mentioned came from only one or two studies; therefore, replication studies are needed examining CAR from the coaches’ perspective. In conclusion, the better coaches report CAR to be, the more they also report fostering a caring and autonomy-supportive environment, teaching life skills, and being satisfied with their coaching experience.

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Kinesiology and Physical Education: A Curriculum (Dis)Alignment Perspective

Ang Chen

This conceptual article focuses on the curriculum disalignment issue that seems to be a contributor to the marginalization of K–12 physical education. Through a brief historical review of events, especially the 1991 Critical Crossroads conference, the article explores and explains reasons that the future of K–12 physical education should rely on developing health-centered, concept-based curricula consistent with kinesiology science. In a major section, the article documents a 20-year effort and findings of curriculum intervention research in elementary, middle, and high schools to advocate and deliberate the need for a curriculum reform that should center on aligning physical education with kinesiology science. Implications of the kinesiology–physical education curriculum alignment to student learning are emphasized, and a paradigm change perspective to curriculum reform is discussed as a path to revitalize K–12 physical education.

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Volume 12 (2023): Issue 1 (Feb 2023): Proceedings of the National Academy of Kinesiology’s 2022 Meeting: Translating and Implementing Kinesiology Research Into Society

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Erratum. Physical Activity and Health Equity for Middle-Aged and Older Adults

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Physical Activity and Health Equity for Middle-Aged and Older Adults

David X. Marquez, Michelle A. Jaldin, Miguel Negrete, Melicia C. Whitt-Glover, and Crystal M. Glover

Physical activity (PA) has been associated with a multitude of beneficial mental and physical outcomes. It is well documented, however, that there are health disparities and inequities for segments of the population, especially as related to PA. Engagement of traditionally minoritized populations into research is essential for justice in health. We discuss a community engagement model that can be used for recruiting and retaining traditionally minoritized populations into PA research, and then we go into three major ethnic/racial groups in the United States: Latinos, African Americans, and Asian Americans. Background information of each group, cultural values that play a role in health for each of the groups, and research demonstrating how culture plays a role in the formation and implementation of PA interventions in these groups is presented.

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Future Directions for Transforming Kinesiology Implementation Science Into Society

Rafael A. Alamilla, NiCole R. Keith, Rebecca E. Hasson, Gregory J. Welk, Deborah Riebe, Sara Wilcox, and Russell R. Pate

Physical activity policy can play a crucial role in ensuring that individuals, communities, and societies can obtain the wide range of health benefits associated with regular physical activity participation. Policies such as Title IX, the Americans With Disabilities Act, and state physical education laws have all increased opportunities for millions of Americans to participate in physical activity. With that said, how policies are developed and implemented vary considerably. The purpose of this manuscript is to contrast an academic conceptual framework with a pragmatic approach for policy implementation. In an ideal world, polices would be developed from foundational knowledge, scaled up to community-level interventions, and implemented in a sequential fashion. However, policy implementation is a disorderly process that requires a practical methodology. The National Physical Activity Plan encompasses strategies and tactics across 10 key societal sectors—and highlights the disorderly process of policy implementation across the various sectors.

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An Overview of Dissemination and Implementation Science in Physical Activity and Health Promotion

Paul Andrew Estabrooks

Dissemination and implementation (D&I) science can be described as the scientific study of the strategies and mechanisms by which scientific evidence is disseminated and implemented in community or clinical settings to improve outcomes for a specified population. This paper provides an overview of D&I science as it relates to health and physical activity promotion. It provides definitions and specifications for D&I strategies and an overview of the types of theories, models, and frameworks used to advance this work. Finally, this review demonstrated the need for physical activity researchers to (a) test relationships between changes in D&I explanatory constructs and D&I outcomes; (b) determine the utility of D&I strategies, based on explanatory theories, to improve intervention reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance; (c) develop strategies to take interventions to scale and reduce disparities; and (d) develop interventions and D&I strategies, in collaboration with those who would ultimately be responsible for implementation.