Context: Understanding if roller massage prior to a run can mitigate fatigue-related decrements in muscle force production during prolonged running is important because of the association between fatigue and running-related injury. Objective: The authors investigated whether a bout of roller massage prior to running would (1) mitigate fatigue-related increases in vertical average load rate and free moment of the ground reaction force of running and (2) mitigate decreases in maximal countermovement jump height. Design: Repeated-measures study. Setting: Laboratory. Participants: A total of 14 recreational endurance athletes (11 men and 3 women) volunteered for the study. Interventions: A 12.5-minute foam roller protocol for the lower extremities and a fatiguing 30-minute treadmill run. Main Outcome Measures: Vertical average load rate, free moment, and maximal jump height before (PRE) and after (POST) the fatiguing treadmill run on separate experimental days: once where participants sat quietly prior to the fatiguing run (REST) and another where the foam roller protocol was performed prior to the run (ROLL). Results: A 2-way multiple analysis of variance found no significant differences in vertical average load rate, free moment, and jump height between PRE/POST times in both REST/ROLL conditions. Conclusions: The authors concluded that recreational endurance athletes maintain running mechanics and jump performance after a fatiguing run regardless of prerun roller massage and may not rely on prerun roller massage as a form of injury prevention.
Jessica G. Hunter, Gina L. Garcia, Sushant M. Ranadive, Jae Kun Shim, and Ross H. Miller
Shawn R. Eagle, Patrick J. Sparto, Cynthia L. Holland, Abdulaziz A. Alkathiry, Nicholas A. Blaney, Hannah B. Bitzer, Michael W. Collins, Joseph M. Furman, and Anthony P. Kontos
Context: Research in the area of dual-task paradigms to assess sport-related concussion (SRC) status is growing, but additional assessment of this paradigm in adolescents is warranted. Design: This case-control study compared 49 adolescent athletes aged 12–20 years with diagnosed SRC to 49 age- and sex-matched controls on visual–spatial discrimination and perceptual inhibition (PIT) reaction time tasks performed while balancing on floor/foam pad conditions. Methods: The SRC group completed measures at a single time point between 1 and 10 days postinjury. Primary outcomes were dual-task reaction time, accuracy, and sway. General linear models evaluated differences between groups (P < .05). Logistic regression identified predictors of concussion from outcomes. Area under the curve evaluated discriminative ability of identifying SRC. Results: Results supported significantly higher anterior–posterior (AP) sway values in concussed participants for visual–spatial discrimination and PIT when balancing on the floor (P = .03) and foam pad (P = .03), as well as mediolateral sway values on the floor during visual–spatial discrimination (P = .01). Logistic regression analysis (R 2 = .15; P = .001) of all dual-task outcomes identified AP postural sway during the PIT foam dual task as the only significant predictor of concussed status (ß = −2.4; P = .004). Total symptoms (area under the curve = 0.87; P < .001) and AP postural sway on foam (area under the curve = 0.70; P = .001) differentiated concussed from controls. Conclusion: The AP postural sway on foam during a postural stability/PIT dual task can identify concussion in adolescents between 1 and 10 days from injury.
Nina Robinson, Shannon L. David, Nicole A. German, and Jennifer Swenson
A healthy 20-year-old Division I track athlete participated in out-of-season practice and experienced inflammation on mid-lateral aspect of his right calcaneus. The patient modified his weekly training program, and a magnetic resonance imaging revealed the presence of an accessory peroneus quartus. This muscle is present in around 5.2% of the population. The pathological symptoms cause pain, snapping, and synovitis. Literature shows a higher prevalence of the accessory peroneus quartus muscle in males of European/American descent and in the right lower leg. Symptoms include peroneal tears, decrease in range of motion, and pain of the ankle and foot.
Caitlin A. Madison, Rod A. Harter, Marie L. Pickerill, and Jeff M. Housman
Rib stress injuries (RSIs) are debilitating injuries that competitive rowers often sustain during their careers, losing up to 10 weeks of training per year. Minimal research exists on RSIs and associated risk factors among National Collegiate Athletic Association women’s open-weight rowers. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of RSIs and assess injury risk factors in intercollegiate female rowers. A prospective 14-week in-season injury surveillance was conducted via online surveys to collect demographic information, identify intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors, and document RSIs and other rowing-related injuries. During one National Collegiate Athletic Association season, 26% of our participants reported a rib cage injury, with six of these injuries identified as potential RSIs. Estimated prevalence for rib cage injuries is 6–33% in National Collegiate Athletic Association women’s rowing teams. RSI reporting and recognition was followed by aggressive clinical management in the population sampled, suggesting the need for larger scale epidemiological studies to determine the true prevalence, severity, and typical clinical course of these injuries.
Konstantin Beinert, Katharina Deutsch, Sebastian Löscher, and Martin Diers
Patients with neck pain demonstrate a variety of sensorimotor impairments, such as decreased cervical joint position sense (CJPS) acuity, which might also be associated with an impaired internal body representation. The present study evaluated the effect of real-time visual feedback of the individual’s own neck on CJPS compared to observing a book. Twenty-three patients with neck pain participated in the experiment and received the interventions in randomized order on separate days in a within-subject pretest–posttest design. Before and immediately after each intervention, CJPS was measured by a therapist blinded to the intervention. The results demonstrate a significantly different development of CJPS (p = .04), with increased CJPS acuity after observing one’s own neck and decreased acuity after observing a book. Real-time visual feedback of the neck improved CJPS acuity in patients with neck pain without active movements of the neck, indicating the importance of central nervous system processing for CJPS acuity.
Hananeh Younesian, Thomas Legrand, Ludovic Miramand, Sarah Beausoleil, and Katia Turcot
Inertial measurement units and normative values enable clinicians to quantify clinical walking tests and set rehabilitation goals. Objectives of this study were (1) to compare time- and distance-based walking tests in individuals with lower limb amputation (iLLA) and normative values following rehabilitation discharge (T1) and 6 weeks after discharge (T2) and (2) to investigate spatiotemporal and foot kinematic parameters over a 6-minute walk test using inertial measurement units. Twelve iLLA participated in this study. Distance, cadence, stance ratio, loading rate ratio, push-up ratio, path length, and minimum toe clearance were analyzed during 6-minute walk test. Nonparametric repeated-measures analysis of variance tests, Bonferroni corrections, were performed. Time of distance-based walking tests diminished at T2 (P < .02). Compared with normative values, walking performance in iLLA was reduced. Cadence at T2 increased significantly (P = .026). Stance ratio increased in both legs at T2 (P < .05). Push-up ratio tended to decrease at T2 in the amputated leg (P = .0003). Variability of path length and minimum toe clearance at T2 were less than at T1 in the nonamputated leg (P < .05). Spatiotemporal improvement at T2 could be due to prosthesis adaptation in iLLA. The lower performance of the functional walk test compared with normative values could be due to amputation and pain-related fatigue.
Sara Oliveira, Marina Cunha, António Rosado, and Cláudia Ferreira
This study aimed to test a model that hypothesized that the compassionate coach, as perceived by the athletes, has an impact on athlete-related social safeness and psychological health, through shame and self-criticism. The sample comprised 270 Portuguese adult athletes, who practiced different competitive sports. The path analysis results confirmed the adequacy of the proposed model, which explained 45% of the psychological health’s variance. Results demonstrated that athletes who perceive their coaches as more compassionate tend to present higher levels of social safeness (feelings of belonging to the team) and of psychological health, through lower levels of shame and self-criticism. These novel findings suggest the importance of the adoption of supportive, warm, safe, and compassionate attitudes from coaches in athletes’ mental health. This study also offers important insights by suggesting that feelings of acceptance and connectedness in team relationships may be at the root of athletes’ emotional processes and well-being.
Eric J. Shumski, Tricia M. Kasamatsu, Kathleen S. Wilson, and Derek N. Pamukoff
Research has identified an increased risk of lower extremity injury postconcussion, which may be due to aberrant biomechanics during dynamic tasks. The purpose of this study was to compare the drop landing biomechanics between individuals with and without a concussion history. Twenty-five individuals with and 25 without a concussion history were matched on age (±3 y), sex, and body mass index (±1 kg/m2). Three-dimensional landing biomechanics were recorded to obtain dependent variables (peak vertical ground reaction force, loading rate, knee flexion angle and external moment, knee abduction angle and external moment, and knee flexion and abduction angle at ground contact). A 1-way multivariate analysis of variance compared outcomes between groups. There was no difference in drop landing biomechanics between individuals with and without a concussion history (F 10,39 = 0.460, P = .877, Wilk Λ= .918). There was an effect of time since concussion on knee flexion characteristics. Time since most recent concussion explained a significant amount of variation in both peak (ΔR 2 = .177, β = −0.305, ΔP = .046) and initial ground contact (ΔR 2 = .292, β = −0.204, ΔP = .008) knee flexion angle after covarying for sex and body mass index. Therefore, time since concussion should be considered when evaluating biomechanical patterns.
Jill L. McNitt-Gray
Susumu Iwasaki, Mary D. Fry, and Candace M. Hogue
The purpose of this study was to examine the mediating role of mindful engagement in the relationship between male high school athletes’ motivational climate perceptions on their teams (i.e., caring, task-, and ego-involving climate) to athlete coachability. Athletes (N = 164, M age = 15.58 years) from multiple sports completed measures assessing mindful engagement in sport (Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale—Revised), Caring Climate Scale, task- and ego-involving climate perceptions (Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire), and coachability (Athletic Coping Skills Inventory). Initial bivariate correlations linked mindful engagement and coachability positively with perceptions of a caring and task-involving climate and negatively with ego-involving climate perceptions. Structural equation modeling analyses then revealed mindful engagement mediated the relationship between climate and coachability. Encouraging coaches and players to foster a caring/task-involving climate might assist in enhancing athletes’ mindful engagement in sport, which may positively influence the degree to which they are coachable.