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Thomas W. Doellman, Brian R. Walkup, Adrien Bouchet, and Brian R. Chabowski

In this paper, the authors argue that the firm value implications of sport sponsorships for sponsors may depend on the competitive environment during the bidding process for different types of sponsorships. More specifically, the authors contend that the bidding environment for professional football (soccer) kit sponsorships represents a form of common value auction, while the bidding environment for corporate logo sponsorships on teams’ shirts does not. As common value auctions are prone to winner’s curse, the firm value implications should be different for kit sponsorship announcements than for shirt sponsorship announcements. Our results suggest that shareholders indeed perceive the value derived from kit and shirt sponsorships differently, resulting in the predicted distinction in their impact on sponsors’ firm value. This study sheds light on conflicting results on firm value implications of sport sponsorships in the prior literature and provides rich areas for future research.

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Neda Nasrollahi, Jordan Quensell, and Liana Machado

Despite an abundance of evidence that exercise benefits cognition and mood, physical activity levels among older adults remain low, with time and inaccessibility posing major barriers. Interval stair climbing is an accessible time-efficient form of physical activity demonstrated to benefit cognition and mood in young adults, but effectiveness in older adults remains unknown. To address this, 28 older adults (M age = 69.78 years, 16 females) undertook cognitive and mood assessments twice, 1 week apart, once preceded by interval stair climbing. A fairly large, albeit only marginally significant, effect size (ηp2=.12) indicated improved cognition following the moderate- to high-intensity intervention; however, rather than improving mood, older adults reported feeling more tired (g = 0.51). These outcomes provide initial indications that this mode of exercise that can easily translate to naturalistic settings offers promise as an intervention strategy, but more research is needed to optimize the protocol to suit aged populations (ACTRN1261900169014).

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Lucas Eduardo Rodrigues Santos, André dos Santos Costa, Eduardo Caldas Costa, Vinicius Oliveira Damasceno, Zhaojing Chen, Izaildo Alves de Oliveira, Karla Kristine Dames, Flávio Oliveira Pires, and Tony Meireles Santos

The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of passive recovery with self-selected time on affect, ratings of perceived exertion, and heart rate in self-selected interval exercises (SSIE). Fifteen older women (68.1 ± 3.8 years), weekly practitioners of functional activities participated in three SSIE with self-selected recovery time (SSRT) and one self-selected continuous exercise session, all at 24 min approximately. The SSIE had the following configurations: 1′/SSRT, 1.5′/SSRT, and 2′/SSRT. The results showed that at the beginning of stimulus heart rate in 1.5′/SSRT (107.9 ± 16.5) and 2′/SSRT (114.6 ± 17.1) were significantly greater (p < .05) compared with self-selected continuous exercise (102.8 ± 14.5). The ratings of perceived exertion in self-selected continuous exercise (2.4 ± 0.4; p < .05) were higher compared with SSIE in recovery. No significant differences were found in affect. The SSIE provided similar responses based on recoveries manipulations.

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Luiz Fernado Biazus-Sehn, Rafael Reimann Baptista, Régis Gemerasca Mestriner, Bianca Pacheco Loss, Daniela Aldabe, and Felipe de Souza Stigger

Real-world walking requires shifting attention from different cognitive demands to adapt gait. This study aims to evaluate the effect of dual tasking on spatiotemporal gait parameters of older adults. Participants were asked to perform a primary complex single-walking task, consisting of a fast-paced linear and a curved gait. Primary task was performed separately and simultaneously with different motor and cognitive secondary tasks. Spatiotemporal gait parameters, walk ratio, and walk stability ratio were measured. Apart from stride length, which stood relatively unchanged, gait speed and cadence were strongly affected by cognitive dual tasking. Cadence seems to be the most impacted by dual tasking during curved gait as it combines challenges of both primary and secondary tasks. Also, during curved phase, walking ratio was significantly lower and stability ratio was greater demonstrating that participants adopted a cautious gait where maintenance of stability took preference over efficiency.

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Jessica L. Trapp, Alicja B. Stannard, Julie K. Nolan, and Matthew F. Moran

The purpose of the current investigation was to report acceleration and deceleration match data in female collegiate soccer players and compare between positions and game halves. A total of 24 players (11 defenders, five midfielders, and eight forwards) (age: M = 19.1, SD = 1.2 years; height: M = 1.64, SD = 0.05 m; and mass: M = 62.2, SD = 5.8 kg) underwent global positioning system monitoring and performance testing. Forwards covered significantly more distance per minute during high-intensity running (effect size [d]: 0.49) and sprinting (d = 0.64) when compared to midfielders across 16 matches for players logging  22.5 min per half. Significant and meaningful positional differences were determined with forwards covering the greatest average distance per acceleration efforts (d = 0.55) and initiating acceleration and deceleration efforts from a greater initial speed (ds = 0.57 and 0.69). When analyzing across all matches for players logging ≥ 40 min per half, second half decreases occurred in the number of accelerations (p < .001; d = 1.98) and decelerations (p < .001; d = 1.92), average distance of accelerations (p < .001; d = 0.83) and decelerations (p = .03; d = 1.30), and starting speed of accelerations (p = .01; d = 0.92) and decelerations (p = .04; d = 1.28). These results provide useful context when interpreting global positioning system–derived player-tracking metrics and can improve positional-specific training programs.

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Sylvia Sunde, Karin Hesseberg, Dawn A. Skelton, Anette H. Ranhoff, Are H. Pripp, Marit Aarønæs, and Therese Brovold

The objective of this study was to evaluate physical function and health-related quality of life 4 months after the cessation of a 4-month exercise intervention in 89 older adults after discharge from hospital. Linear mixed regression models were used to evaluate between-group differences. Data were analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle. There was no statistically significant between-group difference in the Short Physical Performance Battery (mean difference 0.5 points, 95% confidence interval [−0.6, 1.5], p = .378). There was a statistically significant difference in favor of the intervention group in functional capacity (the 6-min walk test; mean difference 32.9 m, 95% confidence interval [1.5, 64.3], p = .040) and physical health–related quality of life (physical component summary of medical outcome Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey; mean difference 5.9 points, 95% confidence interval [2.0, 9.7], p = .003). Interventions aiming to maintain or increase physical function and health-related quality of life should be encouraged in this population.

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Bridgitte Swales, Gemma C. Ryde, and Anna C. Whittaker

Frailty is associated with negative health outcomes, disability, and mortality. Physical activity is an effective intervention to improve functional health status. However, the effect of resistance training on multidimensional health in frail older adults remains unclear. This randomized controlled trial was conducted in a U.K. residential care home to assess feasibility with limited efficacy testing on health and functional outcomes and to inform a future definitive randomized controlled trial. Eleven frail older adults (>65 years) completed a 6-week machine-based resistance training protocol three times a week. Uptake and retention were greater than 80%. The measures and intervention were found to be acceptable and practicable. The analyses indicated large improvements in functional capacity, frailty, and strength in the intervention group compared with the controls. These findings support the feasibility of a definitive randomized controlled trial and reinforce the value of resistance training in this population. This trial was registered with NCT03141879.

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Yong Yang, Shu-Chen Chen, Chiao-Nan Chen, Chihw-Wen Hsu, Wen-Sheng Zhou, and Kuei-Yu Chien

Muscle strength after detraining is still higher than the level before training, which is an important issue for middle-aged and older adults. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of detraining duration (DD), resistance training duration (RTD), and intensity on the maintenance of resistance training (RT) benefits after detraining in middle-aged and older adults. A systematic search yielded 15 randomized control trails (n = 383) eligible for inclusion. The results showed that RTD ≥ 24 weeks and DD ≥ RTD, the RT benefits were still significantly maintained even with medium and low intensity (standardized mean difference = 1.16, 95% confidence interval, CI [0.38, 1.94], p = .004). When RTD < 24 weeks and DD ≤ RTD, only the high-intensity groups maintained the RT benefits (DD, 4–6 weeks: standardized mean difference = 0.71, 95% CI [0.34, 1.08], p = .0002; DD 8–16 weeks: standardized mean difference = 1.35, 95% CI [0.66, 2.04], p = .0001). However, when DD > RTD, the RT benefits were not maintained even with high intensity. In summary, when RTD was less than 24 weeks, RTD > DD was an important factor in maintaining muscle strength.

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Vincent Berardi, David Pincus, Evan Walker, and Marc A. Adams

This study examined whether patterns of self-organization in physical activity (PA) predicted long-term success in a yearlong PA intervention. Increased moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) was targeted in insufficiently active adults (N = 512) via goal setting and financial reinforcement. The degree to which inverse power law distributions, which are reflective of self-organization, summarized (a) daily MVPA and (b) time elapsed between meeting daily goals (goal attainment interresponse times) was calculated. Goal attainment interresponse times were also used to calculate burstiness, the degree to which meeting daily goals clustered in time. Inverse power laws accurately summarized interresponse times, but not daily MVPA. For participants with higher levels of MVPA early in the study, burstiness in reaching goals was associated with long-term resistance to intervention, while stochasticity in meeting goals predicted receptiveness to intervention. These results suggest that burstiness may measure self-organizing resistance to change, while PA stochasticity could be a precondition for behavioral malleability.