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Planning and Pedagogical Considerations for Teaching Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder in Physical Education

Andrew Sortwell, Bastian Carter-Thuillier, Ferman Konukman, Kate O’Brien, Soukaina Hattabi, and Kevin Trimble

Around the world, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental condition. It is linked to a wide range of deficiencies across multiple domains, including restrictive and repetitive behaviors that impair interaction or engagement with others. School-aged children with ASD face challenges that make physical activity more difficult. To address challenges associated with ASD, physical education interventions need to be tailored to the child’s needs and abilities. Despite advances in research on children with ASD in physical education, adopting contemporary approaches is yet to be the norm. This review aimed to examine the literature on intervention models to improve the physical activity skills of children with ASD and to suggest practical considerations for delivering an effective physical education program and lessons. The recommendations provided in this review support teachers in applying strategies that maximize meaningful learning opportunities for children with ASD and use effective pedagogies that meet their needs.

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Volume 12 (2023): Issue 3 (Aug 2023)

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What Is Physical Literacy? An International Review and Analysis of Definitions

Richard Bailey, Iva Glibo, Katrin Koenen, and Nadia Samsudin

The concept of physical literacy has entered policy, advocacy, and practice discourses in many countries and has become a significant focus of physical education, physical activity, and sport promotion. Despite its popularity, questions remain about the coherence of the definitions used and their impact on the capacity of physical literacy to act as a unifying and empowering idea. This contributes to efforts to understand and critically analyze definitional issues by systematically reviewing and analyzing patterns of use. The analysis identified 14 themes, organized into four meta-themes: physical, psychosocial, cognitive, and integrated development. The most common theme among the identified codes was movement skills, which related to developing motor competence and specific skills. The article discusses the diversity of themes and their implications for future research and practice in physical literacy. It challenges the common claim that progress depends on reaching a universal definition as the basis of collaborative work.

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Kinesiology Review’s Scholarly Influence: An Audit of Its First Decade

Duane Knudson

This study documented the scholarly influence of the first 10 years (2012–2021) of Kinesiology Review (KR). Publication, indexing, and citation data were collected from Google Scholar, the KR editor and website, and two open services using Scopus bibliometric data. KR published 356 articles with recent acceptance rates and median initial review times of 30%–55% and 63–85 days, respectively. KR is indexed in five databases, with searches of Google Scholar indicating 92% have received citations by April 5, 2023. The top 36 (10%) cited articles received a total of 2,533 Google Scholar citations. Top cited KR articles had medians of 50 citations and eight citations/per year over 8 years since their publication, as well as 2021 SCImago Journal Rank and SNIP (source-normalized impact per paper) values similar to many kinesiology journals. There was broad subdisciplinary representation with top cited articles from Behavioral/Social Sciences, Biomedical Sciences, Interdisciplinary/Other, and Humanities. KR makes influential contributions synthesizing kinesiology’s interdisciplinarity knowledge.

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Online and Mobile-Technology-Facilitated Movement Interventions Among Disability Populations: A Scoping Review

Taewoo Kim and T.N. Kirk

In 2017, Lai et al. identified technology use as a potentially useful means of delivering movement-based interventions to improve physical activity outcomes for individuals with disabilities. Therefore, the purpose of this scoping review was to summarize technology-facilitated movement interventions using remote (i.e., phone-, internet-, or app-based) technology for people with disabilities. Electronic database searches yielded 15 relevant intervention studies published between 2016 and 2022. Studies centered on various disability populations (e.g., autism, intellectual disabilities, and mobility impairments), used several technology-facilitated approaches (e.g., app-based, telehealth-based, online-based, and virtual-reality-enhanced), and included a range of outcome variables (e.g., physical activity, motor skills, body composition, and program efficacy). Findings indicate that in the years since the previous review, technology-facilitated interventions have become more frequent, and future research should continue to develop and refine such interventions to increase their accessibility and effectiveness for disability populations.

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Bullying and Physical Education: A Scoping Review

Mengyi Wei and Kim C. Graber

This scoping review aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of physical education (PE) literature related to bullying. The review was outlined and guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) checklist. All English-language articles published in peer-reviewed journals that focused on bullying and PE were included. Thematic analysis was used to summarize data extracted from the selected literature. In total, 43 articles conducted in 16 countries were included in this scoping review. Results identified individual-, peer-, school-, and family-level factors that trigger bullying in PE. The impacts of bullying in PE, antibullying strategies and interventions, and summary of future study directions are also discussed. Results from the study highlighted the importance of adopting social ecological perspectives to address bullying behavior and guide antibullying interventions in PE. Physical activities that can potentially promote children’s social emotional learning are also needed to reduce and prevent bullying in PE.

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Volume 12 (2023): Issue 2 (May 2023)

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Overcoming the “Ostrich Effect”: A Narrative Review on the Incentives and Consequences of Questionable Research Practices in Kinesiology

Nicholas B. Tiller and Panteleimon Ekkekakis

Increasing transparency and openness in science is an ongoing endeavor, one that has stimulated self-reflection and reform in many fields. However, kinesiology and its related disciplines are among those exhibiting an “ostrich effect” and a reluctance to acknowledge their methodological shortcomings. Notwithstanding several high-profile cases of scientific misconduct, scholars in the field are frequently engaged in questionable research practices (QRPs) such as biased experimental designs, inappropriate statistics, and dishonest/inexplicit reporting. To advance their careers, researchers are also “gaming the system” by manipulating citation metrics and publishing in predatory and/or pay-to-publish journals that lack robust peer review. The consequences of QRPs in the discipline may be profound: from increasing the false positivity rate to eroding public trust in the very institutions tasked with informing public health policy. But what are the incentives underpinning misconduct and QRPs? And what are the solutions? This narrative review is a consciousness raiser that explores (a) the manifestations of QRPs in kinesiology; (b) the excessive publication pressures, funding pressures, and performance incentives that are likely responsible; and (c) possible solutions for reform.

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The Köhler Motivation Gain Effect With Exercise Tasks: A Meta-Analysis

Stephen Samendinger, Christopher R. Hill, Soyeon Ahn, and Deborah L. Feltz

The purpose of this meta-analysis was to examine the Köhler motivation effect in partnered dyads (conjunctive task structure) during exercise. This preregistered meta-analysis followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and included 19 (total sample size N = 1,912) primary, peer-reviewed research articles that have reported the effectiveness of the Köhler effect paradigm (with a no-partner control condition) in exercise tasks on the outcome variable of intensity or persistence of effort. The overall motivation gain effect was statistically significant, g ¯ ppc = 0 . 91 (SE = 0.12), suggesting a significantly higher performance gain in conjunctive partnered exercise groups compared with individual exercise. The large effect was moderated by the performance-dependent variable (persistence and intensity), mean participant age, and exercise partner type (human and software generated). There appears to be strong support for the Köhler motivation gain paradigm as a potential to help individuals improve their effort in exercise settings.

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Systematic Review of the Coach–Athlete Relationship From the Coaches’ Perspective

Keith McShan and E. Whitney G. Moore

The purpose of this study was to systematically review the variables associated with the coach–athlete relationship (CAR) from the coaches’ perspective. Three databases were searched; 57 studies published between January 2000 and May 2021 met the inclusion criteria. Correlates (n = 35) were grouped into three categories: coach variables, athlete variables, and coaching behaviors. Variables positively associated with the coaches’ perspective of the CAR included coaching satisfaction, the teaching of life skills, and engaging in need-supportive behaviors. Negative correlates included coaching burnout, athletes’ avoidant attachment style, and coaches’ controlling behaviors. Aside from coach satisfaction, many of the relationships mentioned came from only one or two studies; therefore, replication studies are needed examining CAR from the coaches’ perspective. In conclusion, the better coaches report CAR to be, the more they also report fostering a caring and autonomy-supportive environment, teaching life skills, and being satisfied with their coaching experience.