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Bradley Beseler, Christopher Mesagno, Michael Spittle, Nicola F. Johnson, Jack Harvey, Scott Talpey, and Mandy S. Plumb

Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the follow-through on thrown ball velocity, potentially justifying inclusion of the follow-through in Roberton’s five critical components. Method: Seventy-eight University students participated in the overarm, dominant hand, throwing task, which involved throwing a standard tennis ball with maximum force three times. Each throw was filmed by two cameras placed behind and to the open side of the thrower to assess the throwing technique. The velocity of the throws was recorded with a radar gun. Results: Results indicated that, after accounting for the effects of gender, age, and throwing experience, there was a significant effect of follow-through level on throw velocity. Analysis of covariance also revealed a significant gender effect, with males throwing significantly faster than females. Results indicated the follow-through had the second largest impact on thrown ball velocity of all six components. Discussion: These findings provide preliminary support that the follow-through should be added to Roberton’s developmental levels. The inclusion of the follow-through component could assist teachers and coaches to facilitate learner and athlete development and could also improve the accuracy of throwing development assessment.

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Laurie-Anne Kosak, Kianoush Harandian, Marie-Josée Harbec, and Linda S. Pagani

Background: Childhood sport helps children develop growth and maturation, while simultaneously offering self-regulation, motor, and social skills training. This study aims to estimate the influence of sport participation at age 6 years on indicators of health at age 8 years, using a prospective longitudinal birth cohort design. Methods: Participants were 1492 children aged 6–8 years from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development. Lower muscular power was measured with the standing long jump test. Girth used the children’s waist circumference in centimeters. Body mass index was computed from child height and weight. We regressed these directly measured health indicators at age 8 years on parent-reported physical activity at age 6 years using linear Ordinary Least Squares regression. Results: Boys who participated in more physical activity at age 6 years had better lower muscular power (b = 2.368; 95% CI, 0.341 to 4.395) and higher body mass index (b = 0.340; 95% CI, 0.055 to 0.626). No significant results were found for girls. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that physical activity in kindergarten has a positive impact on muscular power by the end of the second grade in boys. This supports the pertinence of implementing physical activity to a routine early in life to help children improve their general health.

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Kim Gammage, Jeff Caron, Alyson Crozier, Alison Ede, Matt Hoffman, Christopher Hill, Sean Locke, Desi McEwan, Kathleen Mellano, Eva Pila, Matthew Stork, and Svenja Wolf

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Heidi Gilchrist, Abby Haynes, Juliana S. Oliveira, Anne Grunseit, Catherine Sherrington, Adrian Bauman, Roberta Shepherd, and Anne Tiedemann

Exercise that targets balance and strength is proven to prevent falls in older age. The Successful AGEing yoga trial is the first large randomized controlled trial to assess the impact of yoga on falls in people aged ≥60 years. We conducted a realist process evaluation to explain the strong participant engagement observed using interviews (21 participants and three yoga instructors) and focus groups (12 participants and four yoga instructors). Results showed that relaxation, breathing, and yoga’s mind–body connection created a satisfying internal focus on bodily sensation which was valued by participants. The mechanisms of mindfulness and embodiment appeared to facilitate this. Mindfulness and embodiment are also linked to, and enhance engagement with, other forms of physical activity. By focusing creatively on these mechanisms, we can develop a range of programs that target improvements in physical and mental health (including reducing falls and fear of falls) and appeal to older people.

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Martha J. Anderson, Yvette Ingram, Linda Meyer, Thomas West, and Ellen West

Collegiate athletes have demonstrated a need for social support to help cope with their daily responsibilities. The purpose of this research was to explore National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II athletes’ perception of social support from friends, teammates, family, coaches, significant others, and athletic trainers following injury, illness, or other identified life stressors. There were 546 participants who completed a five-part survey using the University Stress Scale, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, the Athletic Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, the Perceived Stress Scale, and a demographic section. Of the participants, 352 (64.5%) stated that they experienced moderate stress levels, and all participants indicated experiencing an identified life stressor within the last 12 months. The results indicated statistically significant differences when comparing providers of social support: females preferred the support of friends, significant others, and athletic trainers, and freshmen and sophomores perceived more social support from friends than did juniors and seniors.

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Koki Nishiomasu, Takahiro Ogawa, and Keisuke Sato

This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between improvement in activities of daily living (ADL) and cognitive status during rehabilitation and assess factors associated with ADL improvement among older patients undergoing rehabilitation after hip fractures. This retrospective cohort study comprised 306 patients aged ≥80 years who underwent hip fracture rehabilitation. The functional independence measure gain during rehabilitation was significantly lower in the group with abnormal cognition than in the group with normal cognition. Mini-Mental State Examination, Charlson Comorbidity Index, daily duration of rehabilitation, and length of hospitalization for rehabilitation were independent factors associated with functional independence measure gain during rehabilitation in the multivariate regression analysis. Although older patients with cognitive impairment had lower ADL improvements during hip fracture rehabilitation, such patients may be able to improve their ADL by undergoing intensive and long rehabilitation programs. They should not refrain from such rehabilitation programs due to older age, fracture, and cognitive impairment.

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Tsz Lun (Alan) Chu, Ellea Bachmeier, and Taylor Mair

Qualitative research has demonstrated the prevalence of gender inequity and sexism in sport-related careers, including those in sport psychology. To provide quantitative evidence, we examined the role of gender in Certified Mental Performance Consultants’ (CMPC) specialization and employment by extracting and coding the data (N = 576) from the CMPC Directory. Independent samples t tests showed that male CMPCs specialized in more masculine sports, less feminine sports, and a similar number of gender-neutral sports compared with female CMPCs. Chi-square tests of independence revealed a larger proportion of male than female CMPCs working in professional sport. No significant differences were found in other employment settings (college sport, military, and private practice), age-group specialization, and mental health licensure. These findings, which should be interpreted with caution before further investigation, suggest a need for collaboration between sport psychology professionals and sport organizations that might help mitigate internal and external barriers to gender equity.

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Alexander W.J. Freemantle, Lorenzo D. Stafford, Christopher R.D. Wagstaff, and Lucy Akehurst

Researchers have shown that the emotions that athletes experience during sporting competition can be transferred between team members to create collective team emotional states. Nevertheless, collective emotions have not yet been investigated for sporting dyads. In this study, the emotional experiences of 68 doubles table tennis players (34 dyads) were examined at three time points: precompetition, in-competition, and postcompetition. It was found that the intensity of each emotional state differed as a function of match situation (positive/negative). Moreover, in-competition anxiety, dejection, and anger were shown to predict poorer subjective performance, and anxiety was shown to negatively impact future objective athlete performance. Most pertinently, within-dyad emotional aggregation was identified for athlete in-competition happiness and dejection and for postcompetition happiness, dejection, and anger. These findings represent the first quantitative evidence of emotional convergence in sport dyads and provide support for the social functional theory of emotion in sport.

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Charles B. Corbin, Hyeonho Yu, and Diane L. Gill

Physical education programs in the United States emerged in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Over time, physical education became the field of kinesiology with an established disciplinary base with multiple associated professions. Historical context is provided for five different eras. Textbooks, including those authored by National Academy of Kinesiology fellows, played an important role in the evolution of the field, providing direction, context, and content for both the subdisciplines and the professions. Arguments are offered for the value of textbooks as an important form of scholarship (the scholarship of integration), for the value of textbooks in providing visibility and real-world impact for the field of kinesiology, and for the value of associated textbook ancillary materials as teaching resources for faculty in institutions of higher learning.