It is widely known that the aging process induces relevant impairments on both muscle morphology and function. In this sense, resistance training alongside proper protein intake are important strategies to mitigate the sarcopenia process in older individuals. However, adding protein supplementation (PS) to resistance training interventions for enhancing muscle strength and functional performance has shown mixed results in this population. Therefore, the present study aimed to review the most recent evidence regarding PS and its effects on muscle strength and functional parameters of older adults. In addition, the effect size of each individual study (post–pre intervention) was also calculated to provide further clinical relevance on the topic. The results of the studies included do not seem to support PS for healthy older adults with proper protein intake. However, further studies with other sample characteristics (very old, frail, obese, and inadequate protein consumption) must be carried out to better understand the effects of PS in an older population.
Júlio Benvenutti Bueno de Camargo and Alexandre Ferraz de Oliveira
Karel Frömel, Josef Mitáš, and Catrine Tudor-Locke
Background: This study aimed to present step-determined physical activity trends in adolescents with different activity levels over a period of 10 years. Methods: Pedometers were used to monitor weekly physical activity in 1855 boys and 2648 girls aged 15–19 years recruited from 155 schools in the Czech Republic between 2009 and 2018. Trends for average steps/day and percent of accumulating various levels of steps/day (<10,000, 10,000–13,000, and >13,000 steps/d) were analyzed by sex. Results: There was a statistically significant decrease in average steps/day between 2009–2010 and 2017–2018 in boys from 12,355 (3936) steps/d to 10,054 (3730) steps/d and girls from 11,501 (3278) steps/d to 10,216 (3288) steps/d. The percent accumulating <10,000 steps/d increased by 21% in boys and 12% in girls. The percent achieving >13,000 steps/d decreased by 17% in boys and 10% in girls. Conclusions: Objectively collected evidence indicates an overall decrease in Czech adolescents’ steps/day over a 10-year period concurrent with an increase in the percent of boys and girls accumulating <10,000 steps/d. These trends are concerning as they portend a decline in physical activity as adolescents transition to adulthood and continue to age, which also may have major health implications.
Panteleimon Ekkekakis and Nicholas B. Tiller
Dishman challenged kinesiologists to seek a compromise between “the ideal physiological prescription and a manageable behavioral prescription.” High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is the first exercise modality that has been claimed to meet this challenge, combining substantial benefits for fitness and health with pleasure and enjoyment. If true, these claims may revolutionize the science and practice of exercise. In this paper, four claims are critically appraised: (a) HIIT lowers the risk of mortality more than moderate-intensity continuous exercise, (b) HIIT doubles endurance performance after only 15 min of training over 2 weeks, (c) 1 min of HIIT is equivalent to 45 min of moderate-intensity continuous exercise, and (d) HIIT is more pleasant and enjoyable than moderate-intensity continuous exercise. The evidence for these claims appears questionable. Kinesiology should heed the principle endorsed by Hume, Laplace, and Sagan, namely that extraordinary claims should be supported by commensurate evidence.
Rachel E. Bollaert, C. Danielle Jones, Petra Silic, and Robert W. Motl
This study examined levels of depression and anxiety symptoms (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores), and self-reported (Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire), and accelerometer-measured physical activity in older adults with multiple sclerosis (n = 40) compared with age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n = 40). We observed differences in depression, anxiety, and physical activity between groups and further observed that minutes/day of moderate to vigorous physical activity partially accounted for group differences in depression scores. We provide preliminary support for research examining approaches for increasing moderate to vigorous physical activity and possibly reducing depression symptoms in older adults with multiple sclerosis.
Karen A. Smith, Robert J. Naughton, Carl Langan-Evans, and Kiara Lewis
This mixed methods study aimed to investigate weight cutting practices of female taekwon-do athletes internationally and explore their experiences of “making weight.” A survey of weight loss practices and eating behaviors was completed by 103 taekwon-do athletes from 12 countries, which illustrated that 72.5% of athletes engage in both acute and chronic weight loss practices prior to competition and that there were higher levels of disordered eating within this athletic population than nonweight cutting athletes. Semistructured interviews were conducted with five international-level competitors; thematic analysis of the interviews identified that the women in general felt weight cutting was “horrible—but worth it” and the women believed that (a) weight cutting is unpleasant, difficult, and challenging; and (b) weight cutting provides a competitive advantage. The implications of this study are that weight cutting is widespread among high-level competitive female taekwon-do athletes and this is unlikely to change given the perceived advantages. Efforts are needed to make sure that the women are knowledgeable of the risks and are provided with safe and effective means of making weight.
Mina Milad, Christine Karungi, Abdus Sattar, Victor Musiime, Rashidah Nazzinda, Grace A. McComsey, and Sahera Dirajlal-Fargo
Background: The present study aims to understand the socioeconomic and physical activity impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on children living with perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV) and without HIV (HIV−) in Kampala (Uganda). Methods: The authors included children aged 10–18 years who filled out questionnaires at baseline (2017–2018, prepandemic) and 2 years later (March 2020–January 2021, pandemic) in an observational cohort study at Joint Clinical Research Centre (Kampala). Physical activity energy expenditure was calculated using a youth compendium from the National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research. Descriptive and standard test statistics including Kruskal–Wallis were used. Results: One hundred and ninety-eight children from Kampala Uganda were included prepandemic (101 PHIV and 97 HIV−); 131 (71 PHIV and 60 HIV−) had information collected during the pandemic. At baseline, median and interquartile range age was 13 years (11; 15), and 52% were females. During the pandemic, overall weekly physical activity increased by a median of 854 minutes (interquartile range: 270–1890), and energy expenditures increased by 16% in both PHIV and in HIV− (P < .001 for groups overall prepandemic vs pandemic). Conclusions: The authors found in this Ugandan cohort of children that children engaged in more physical activity. Further research is warranted to understand the long-term effects of the pandemic on children’s well-being.
Satu Kaski, Monna Arvinen-Barrow, Ulla Kinnunen, and Jari Parkkari
The aim of the present study was to identify profiles of elite athlete mental well- and ill-being and study how the profiles (i.e., subgroups of athletes) differed in sport-related demands and resources. A total of 259 Finnish elite athletes (n = 170 active and n = 89 retired) completed quantitative self-report inventories. Through cluster analysis, four profiles of mental well- and ill-being were identified. Profile 1 was overrepresented by retired, older, and male athletes, and characterized by good mental well-being. Profile 2 consisted mainly of active athletes who reported mild risk for alcohol abuse. Profile 3 consisted mainly of women who displayed possible presence of an eating disorder. Profile 4 was typical of young athletes with mental ill-being. The balance between sport-related demands and resources appeared to be the healthiest in Profile 1 and worst in Profile 4. The present findings are beneficial for those who work with and/or provide psychological support to athletes.
Courtney C. Walton, Kelsey J. Lewis, James Kirby, Rosemary Purcell, Simon M. Rice, and Margaret S. Osborne
This cross-sectional study explored athlete responses to the Compassion Motivation and Action Scales Self-Compassion Scale, examining its relationship with well-being. Athlete (N = 207; mean age 27.9 years) scores were consistent with previous population means. Scores on the Compassion Motivation and Action Scales Self-Compassion Scale did not differ between elite and nonelite athletes, nor did they correlate significantly with trait competitiveness. Significant differences emerged based on athlete well-being state, with athletes categorized as “flourishing” scoring higher on the total score and all subscales of the Compassion Motivation and Action Scales Self-Compassion Scale, as compared with those with “moderate mental health” (Cohen’s ds from 0.58 to 0.92). Furthermore, the distress tolerance subscale significantly mediated the relationship between self-compassion intentions and well-being (indirect path: B = 0.034, p < .001). The results suggest that self-compassionate intentions are not enough, and athletes may need support to tolerate the distress that comes with moving toward one’s own suffering.