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The Caffeine Supplementation in a Moderate-Intensity Aerobic Exercise in Obese Asian Women

Dian Listiarini, Wara Kushartanti, and Novita Intan Arovah

While the role of exercise in managing obesity has been suggested, little is known about the effect of caffeine supplementation in the exercise program on body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (%BF), and cholesterol. This research compared the effect of aerobic exercise with and without caffeine on BMI, %BF, and cholesterol level in obese Asian women. Twenty-seven participants were randomly allocated into three groups, which were an aerobic exercise without caffeine (A; n = 9), an aerobic exercise with 3 mg/body weight—caffeine (AC; n = 9), and a control group (C; n = 9). The exercise was a 45-min exercise training at 60%–75% maximum heart rate conducted three times weekly for 8 weeks. The mixed-method repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to assess the effect of treatments and time (i.e., pretest and posttest) on the outcome measures, followed by simple effect analyses with Bonferroni correction. While there was a significant improvement in BMI and %BF from the pretest to posttest, this was superseded by a time-by-treatment interaction effect. For the time-by-treatment interaction, the cholesterol levels in the A and AC groups were significantly lower than in C, suggesting that the benefit of the exercise program is most evident in controlling cholesterol. In conclusion, the 3 mg/kg body weight caffeine does not appear to provide additional benefit in the 8-week moderate-intensity aerobic exercise session in improving BMI, %BF, and cholesterol among obese Asian women. Further research with higher caffeine dosage and larger and more heterogenous sample sizes is recommended to confirm the findings.

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Erratum. Effects of COVID-19 Lockdown on Body Composition and Physical Performance of Elite Female Football Players

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Affective Responses to Fitness Testing in College-Aged Women

Alyssa Abreu, Jessica Thompson, Danielle N. Cofield, Mark D. Faries, and Eric J. Jones

Physical inactivity is common among women and a quarter of college-aged women are classified as overweight or obese, making this population an important target for obesity prevention. Fitness testing is commonplace, and practitioners can hold an underlying belief that discrepancies will promote positive responses. However, little research has examined the affective responses to fitness testing in adults. The purpose of this study was to assess the affective responses to common fitness testing, while examining relationships to physical self to help elucidate why some respond to such testing and others do not. Forty-eight college-aged women were presented with their discrepancy from a normative standard across six fitness tests. Findings support previous conceptualizations on discrepancies and affective responses, in that greater negative discrepancies from normative standards were associated with greater changes in negative feeling states. In addition, the results suggest that only certain discrepancies pose a threat to perceived satisfaction with one’s physical self (i.e., self-concept)—mainly though subdomains related to body appearance and aerobic fitness. In other words, the greater the perceived satisfaction of self, the greater negative emotional response was experienced to the specific test discrepancy. The notation of “threats” to important domains of self-concept might help explain why fitness testing that alerts individuals where they are discrepant produce behavioral changes in some but not others. Professionals should consider the impact of providing fitness test discrepancies on negative affective responses, with the possible impact on motivation and future behavior choices to reduce the discrepancy.

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Volume 30 (2022): Issue 2 (Oct 2022)

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Transition and Change

Lori A. Gano-Overway

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Title IX at 50: A Critical Celebration

Jaime Schultz

This article is a critical celebration of Title IX. Fifty years of this landmark civil rights legislation has brought tremendous progress for girls and women in all areas of the U.S. educational system—including sport. However, Title IX has yet to achieve its full potential. For this to happen, I propose nine pressing issues that must be addressed: enforcing compliance; roster management and other dubious compliance tactics; more opportunities for women of color; the leadership gap; sex-segregated sport; the inclusion of transgender athletes; name, image, and likeness opportunities; the athletic arms race; and sexual harassment and violence. Based on current, scholarship, published data, and contemporary examples, this “nine for IX” approach is not a critique of the law but rather a critique of those aspects of American interscholastic and intercollegiate sport that continually hamstring Title IX’s power.

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The Women’s Sports Foundation 50 Years of Title IX: We’re Not Done Yet Executive Summary and Policy Recommendations

Ellen J. Staurowsky, Courtney L. Flowers, Erin Buzuvis, Lindsay Darvin, and Natalie Welch

In 2022, the Women’s Sports Foundation published a report addressing the current status of Title IX compliance in U.S school-based sports, examining the limitations of Title IX as a single axis law that addresses gender but not other areas of intersectionality including race, gender identity, sexual orientation, and ability. What is presented here is the executive summary and policy recommendations from the report.

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Load–Velocity Relationship to Estimate the One-Repetition Maximum in the Hexagonal Bar Deadlift Exercise in Women

Petrus Gantois, Drumond Gilo, Ana Denise, Alejandro Muñoz-López, Fábio Yuzo Nakamura, and Fabiano de Souza Fonseca

In this study, we examined the load–velocity relationship in the hexagonal bar deadlift exercise in women. Twenty-seven resistance-trained women were recruited. Participants performed a progressive load test up to the one-repetition maximum (1RM) load for determining the individual load–velocity relationship in the hexagonal bar deadlift exercise. Bar velocity was measured in every repetition through a linear encoder. A very strong and negative relationship was found between the %1RM and bar velocity for the linear (R 2 = .94; standard error of the estimation = 5.43% 1RM) and second-order polynomial (R 2 = .95) regression models. The individual load–velocity relationship provided even better adjustments (R 2 = .98; coefficient of variation = 1.77%) than the general equation. High agreement level and low bias were found between actual and predicted 1RM for the general load–velocity relationship (intraclass correlation coefficient = .97 and 95% confidence interval [0.90, 0.99]; bias = −2.59 kg). In conclusion, bar velocity can be used to predict 1RM with high accuracy during hexagonal bar deadlift exercise in resistance-trained women.

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Engaging Conversation in Women’s Sport and Physical Activity: Traversing Generations

Akilah R. Carter-Francique, Yeomi Choi, DeAnne Davis Brooks, Katherine M. Jamieson, and Judy Liao

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Title IX and the Expectation of Equity

Carole Oglesby

This essay gives a personal viewpoint of the environment for girls’ and women’s sport in the years surrounding the origination of Title IX and the organizational impacts unleashed by this legislation. Particular attention is given to the, somewhat surprising, degree to which men in power positions in sport benefitted from Title IX’s uneven pattern of enactment. A cautionary note suggests that advocates in future work take careful steps so that language and protocols of potential legislation assure benefits to the intended beneficiaries rather than others. A concluding assessment asserts that one of the strongest positives of Title IX is a shift in stance of female athletes from being “grateful for banquet leftovers” to an expectation of equity in treatment and benefits.