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Alexandrya H. Cairns, Stephanie M. Singe, and Christianne M. Eason

Burnout and work–family conflict (WFC) are stressors faced by secondary school athletic trainers, however, the concept of perceived stress and its relationship to burnout or WFC is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate perceived stress’ relationship with burnout and WFC. Participants reported a WFC score of 40.36 (±15.63), low burnout (40.1 ± 16.28), and moderate stress (15.99 ± 7.02). Perceived stress predicted WFC, but not burnout (b = 1.13, t 572 = 14.132, p ≤ .001). One’s level of perceived stress impacts WFC, which indicates higher stress will equal greater work–family conflict.

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P. Asunta, K. Kämppi, K. Ng, A. Saari, and T. Tammelin

Finland’s 2022 Para Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Adolescents With Disabilities includes a summary of results and grades for 10 physical activity indicators and highlights how these grades are interpreted by stakeholders. The disability classification was based on the UNICEF/Washington Group on Disability Statistics measure, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD7) measure, or education status. Data between 2017 and 2021 were reviewed by 24 physical activity specialists using benchmarks adapted for data on disabilities from the Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance. The grades were assigned as follows: Overall Physical Activity, C+; Organized Sport, C; Active Play, D; Active Transportation, B; Family and Peers, C+; School, B; Community and Environment, C−; Government, A−; sedentary behavior and physical fitness were graded as incomplete. Stakeholder focus-group discussions highlighted the need for multidisciplinary cooperation and increasing competence of specialists working with children to promote a physically active lifestyle for all children.

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Hannah L. Stedge, Thomas Cappaert, Valerie W. Herzog, Beth Kinslow, and Malissa Martin

The Athletic Trainers’ Self-Confidence Scale (ATSCS) is a nine-item Likert-scale questionnaire assessing the respondent’s level of agreement with statements regarding confidence in recognizing and managing exertional heat illnesses. Test–retest reliability of this instrument has not yet been established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the internal consistency, test–retest reliability, and minimum detectable change score for the composite score of the ATSCS. A total of 18 professional master of science in athletic training students (nine first-year and nine second-year students) completed the ATSCS at three testing sessions with 48 hr between sessions. The nine items of the ATSCS demonstrated good internal consistency (α = .86; 95% confidence interval [.78, .94]). The composite scores of the ATSCS demonstrated moderate test–retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = .75; 95% confidence interval [.497, .893]). The calculated minimal detectable change for the composite change score was 6.19. The ATSCS has good internal reliability as well as test–retest reliability. These results display that the tool will provide consistent, reliable results of changes in athletic training students’ self-confidence.

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Martin Alfuth, Pia Joana Franke, Jonas Klemp, and Axel Johannes Knicker

Context: After anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR), long-term functional deficiencies can occur, with controversial results reported when comparing women and men. Dynamic balance and unilateral hop test performance are considered important indicators for the risk of reinjury of the lower extremity. Although both sexes seem to have a similar risk to experience a second anterior cruciate ligament injury, sex-specific differences of dynamic balance and unilateral hop performance in handball players following ACLR are unknown. Objective: To compare dynamic balance and unilateral hop performance between women and men handball players at least 6 months after ACLR. Design: Cross-sectional pilot study. Participants: Ten women (27.6 [4.5] y) and 10 men (26.5 [3.1] y) handball players 6 to 16 months after ACLR. Outcome Measures: Dynamic balance and unilateral hop performance were assessed using the Y-Balance Test and the Single-Leg Hop for Distance Test. Results: Women players demonstrated significantly better results in the anterior direction of the Y-Balance Test for both legs compared with men players. Hop performance was not significantly different between sexes. Conclusion: Dynamic balance and single-leg hop performance seem not to differ between women and men handball players 6 to 16 months after ACLR. The difference between sexes in the anterior reach direction of the Y-Balance Test should be considered small, rather than representing a true difference.

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Paige Laxton, Freda Patterson, and Sean Healy

This systematic review of literature aimed to synthesize the multilevel factors related to physical activity (PA) among adults (age 18–65) with intellectual disability living in group homes. Keyword searches were used to identify articles from electronic databases, resulting in the inclusion of 10 articles for full-text review. Data were extracted relating to study and sample characteristics and study findings. Methodological quality of the studies was also evaluated. Factors related to PA in group homes were identified at all levels of the social–ecological model. Intrapersonal factors (e.g., health and functional status, attitude to PA), interpersonal factors (e.g., staff attitude, encouragement for PA, and coparticipation in PA), and organizational factors (e.g., program offerings, staff education, and staff–client ratios) were prominent findings in the reviewed studies. The findings support a social–ecological approach for PA promotion in group homes that target intrapersonal, interpersonal, and organizational factors.

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Michelle A. Sandrey

Introduction/Clinical Scenario : As many hamstring injuries occur when the hamstrings are in a lengthened state during the deceleration phase of running when the muscle is eccentrically contracting to slow the body down this functional aspect needs to be addressed. Thus, a rehabilitation program with a focus on progressive targeted eccentric hamstring exercises by gradually placing and exposing the muscle to eccentric force in a lengthened state supplemented with progressive running drills should be evaluated. Focused Clinical Question : Does the inclusion of a complementary running progression program for the rehabilitation of an acute hamstring injury reduce the time to safe return to sport with less hamstring reinjury occurrence for an athletic population? Summary of Key Findings: Three studies assessed the inclusion of a progressive running program with several types of running progression parameters addressed. Progressive running drills will load the hamstring in a functional manner, with a gradual increase in velocity of movement and lengthening of the muscle. Clinical Bottom Line : It appears that a complementary progressive running program within an acute hamstring rehabilitation program should be included as it caused no further harm and does not tend to increase hamstring reinjury occurrence. Strength of Recommendation : There is grade B evidence to include a complementary running progression program within an acute hamstring rehabilitation program.

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Mark L. Latash, Shirin Madarshahian, and Joseph M. Ricotta

We accept a definition of synergy introduced by Nikolai Bernstein and develop it for various actions, from those involving the whole body to those involving a single muscle. Furthermore, we use two major theoretical developments in the field of motor control—the idea of hierarchical control with spatial referent coordinates and the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis—to discuss recent studies of synergies within spaces of individual motor units (MUs) recorded within a single muscle. During the accurate finger force production tasks, MUs within hand extrinsic muscles form robust groups, with parallel scaling of the firing frequencies. The loading factors at individual MUs within each of the two main groups link them to the reciprocal and coactivation commands. Furthermore, groups are recruited in a task-specific way with gains that covary to stabilize muscle force. Such force-stabilizing synergies are seen in MUs recorded in the agonist and antagonist muscles but not in the spaces of MUs combined over the two muscles. These observations reflect inherent trade-offs between synergies at different levels of a control hierarchy. MU-based synergies do not show effects of hand dominance, whereas such effects are seen in multifinger synergies. Involuntary, reflex-based, force changes are stabilized by intramuscle synergies but not by multifinger synergies. These observations suggest that multifinger (multimuscle synergies) are based primarily on supraspinal circuitry, whereas intramuscle synergies reflect spinal circuitry. Studies of intra- and multimuscle synergies promise a powerful tool for exploring changes in spinal and supraspinal circuitry across patient populations.

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Karrie L. Hamstra-Wright, Eddin Djelovic, and Justin Payette

Clinical Scenario: Having an indication of how bone is remodeling in response to training load could help identify athletes and military personnel at increased stress fracture (SFx) risk. Direct assessment of bone remodeling is impractical. Biochemical markers of bone turnover are used as an indirect measure of bone remodeling and have potential to inform prevention and treatment efforts. To date, the relationship between bone turnover markers and SFxs in athletes or military personnel remains unclear. Clinical Question: Are SFxs related to bone turnover markers in athletes and military personnel? Summary of Key Findings: Seven met eligibility criteria. In five studies, an association between SFxs and bone turnover markers existed. Clinical Bottom Line: The evidence supporting a relationship between SFxs and bone turnover markers in athletes and military personnel is mixed. While five of the seven studies reported some type of relationship, no studies prospectively measured bone turnover markers in a group of athletes or military personnel without an SFx or without SFx history and followed them over time to reassess bone turnover markers upon SFx occurrence. Strength of Clinical Recommendation: In accordance with the Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy, Grade C is the most appropriate strength of recommendation rating.

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Erin Frey, Kayla Ruszin, and Emily E. Hildebrand

Focused Clinical Question: Does the application of kinesiotape compared with standard treatments result in greater/faster postoperative edema reduction after total knee replacement or anterior cruciate ligament repair?Clinical Bottom Line: There was sufficient evidence to support the application of kinesiotape to reduce postoperative edema brought on by a total knee replacement or anterior cruciate ligament repair. Patients who received kinesiotaping, applied to the skin with a pattern to enhance lymphatic drainage, showed significant decreases in postoperative knee circumference measurements and pain levels. Kinesiotaping application under these acute conditions offers an evidence-based approach for clinicians to optimize the physiological environment and promote progress through a patient’s phases of healing.

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Shayane Santiago, Moni Syeda, Jason Bartholomew, and Russell T. Baker

Focused Clinical Question: What are the effects of the Mulligan Concept combined with traditional physiotherapy on lateral elbow pain and grip strength in adults with lateral epicondylalgia (LE) compared with traditional physiotherapy? Clinical Bottom Line: Grade B evidence supports positive effects of the Mulligan Concept combined with traditional physiotherapy on LE compared with traditional physiotherapy alone. However, the effects of the Mulligan Concept as a standalone intervention in the treatment of LE are not well known. Therefore, additional research is warranted to determine the individual effects of the Mulligan Concept compared with its use in a comprehensive rehabilitation protocol to treat LE in adults.