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Garcia Ashdown-Franks, Angela Meadows, and Eva Pila

Scholars have proposed that cumulative experiences of anti-fat bias and stigma contribute to detrimental physical activity experiences, as well as social and health inequities. The objective of this research was to explore how enacted weight stigma experiences are constructed and impact women’s physical activity experiences long term. Eighteen women who identified as having had negative experiences related to their body weight, shape, or size in physical activity contexts participated in semistructured interviews. Using reflexive thematic analysis, four themes were identified: (a) norms of body belonging, (b) distancing from an active identity, (c) at war with the body, and (d) acts of resistance. These findings deepen understandings of how historical experiences of weight stigma can have longstanding consequences on physical activity cognitions, emotions, and behaviors. To equitably promote physical activity, it is imperative that movement spaces (e.g., fitness centers, sport organizations) both target anti-fat stigma and adopt weight-inclusive principles.

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Andrew Powell

Increasing the physical activity (PA) levels of inactive older adults to promote healthy aging and to reduce preventable health conditions is a public health priority. However, there remains uncertainty on what constitutes the most important components and characteristics of effective PA interventions for older adults, and previous research has largely focused on the cognitive and behavioral strategies they adopt to increase uptake and adherence to PA. This narrative review puts forward the novel idea, with supporting evidence, that the strength, quality, and collaborative nature of the professional–client relationship, a concept drawn from the field of psychotherapy and known as therapeutic alliance, may be a vital and foundational element of effective PA interventions. This article will offer a new understanding, and a new direction of research to aid the future conceptualization, design, and development of interventions that aim to increase the PA levels of older adults.

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Ghazala T. Saleem, Beth S. Slomine, and Stacy J. Suskauer

Context: Objective and expedient assessments of standing postural control incorporating static and dynamic tasks are necessary for identifying subtle motor deficits and clearing children to return to high-risk activities after concussion. The Revised Physical and Neurological Examination for Subtle Signs (PANESS) gaits and stations tasks evaluate both static and dynamic aspects of postural control. While the PANESS gaits and stations subscale is sensitive to concussion in youth, the benefit of each specific task for this purpose is unknown. Purpose: This study evaluated whether specific PANESS tasks identify postural impairments after youth concussion. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Academicallyaffiliated research laboratory. Participants: Sixty youth, ages 10–17 years, comprised 3 groups: (1) youth symptomatic from concussion (4–14 d postinjury [n = 18]), (2) clinically-recovered youth (27–122 d postinjury [n = 15]), and (3) age- and gender-matched never-concussed controls (n = 27). Main Outcome Measure: PANESS gaits and stations tasks (6 dynamic and 3 static) at the time of the initial research visit. Results: Kruskal–Wallis statistic identified a significant main effect of group on standing on one foot (a 30-s task). Both symptomatic and clinically-recovered youth showed deficits on standing on one foot relative to controls. Conclusions: Single-leg tasks of longer duration may maximize the ability to detect residual postural deficits after concussion and can be readily incorporated in targeted sport rehabilitation protocols.

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Ross M. Murray and Catherine M. Sabiston

The sport team social environment plays an important role in athletes’ experiences, including their enjoyment of sport, and these experiences may influence athletes’ decision to continue or dropout of sport. In the current study, enjoyment was examined as a mediator of the relationship between social identity and sport dropout. Adolescent girls (N = 150) who participated on a community sports team completed a questionnaire assessing social identity with their team and enjoyment of sport, and their sport participation status was measured 1 year later. Controlling for age and socioeconomic position, a path model showed that enjoyment mediated the relationship between social identity and sport dropout, bootstrapped unstandardized indirect effect = −0.04, 95% confidence interval [−0.08, −0.01]; p < .01. Fostering social identity with one’s sport team may contribute to greater enjoyment of sport and reductions in sport dropout in adolescent girls.

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Mandeep Kaur, Daniel Cury Ribeiro, Kate E. Webster, and Gisela Sole

Context: Altered knee joint mechanics may be related to quadriceps muscle strength, time since surgery, and sex following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between knee moments, with participant-related factors during stair navigation post-ACLR. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: A total of 30 participants (14 women) with ACLR, on average 7.0 (SD 4.4) years postsurgery were tested during stair ascent and descent in a gait laboratory. Motion capture was conducted using a floor-embedded force plate and 11 infrared cameras. Quadriceps concentric and eccentric muscle strength was measured with an isokinetic dynamometer at 60°/s, and peak torques recorded. Multiple regression analyses were performed between external knee flexion and adduction moments, respectively, and quadriceps peak torque, sex, and time since ACLR. Results: Higher concentric quadriceps strength and female sex accounted for 55.7% of the total variance for peak knee flexion moment during stair ascent (P < .001). None of the independent variables accounted for variance in knee adduction moment (P = .698). No significant associations were found for knee flexion and adduction moments during for stair descent. Conclusion: Higher quadriceps concentric strength and sex explains major variance in knee flexion moments during stair ascent. The strong association between muscle strength and external knee flexion moments during stair ascent indicate rehabilitation tailored for quadriceps may optimize knee mechanics, particularly for women.

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Jurdan Mendiguchia, Adrián Castaño-Zambudio, Pedro Jiménez-Reyes, Jean–Benoît Morin, Pascal Edouard, Filipe Conceição, Jonas Tawiah-Dodoo, and Steffi L. Colyer

Purpose: Sprint kinematics have been linked to hamstring injury and performance. This study aimed to examine if a specific 6-week multimodal intervention, combining lumbopelvic control and unning technique exercises, induced changes in pelvis and lower-limb kinematics at maximal speed and improved sprint performance. Methods: Healthy amateur athletes were assigned to a control or intervention group (IG). A sprint test with 3-dimensional kinematic measurements was performed before (PRE) and after (POST) 6 weeks of training. The IG program included 3 weekly sessions integrating coaching, strength and conditioning, and physical therapy approaches (eg, manual therapy, mobility, lumbopelvic control, strength and sprint “front-side mechanics”-oriented drills). Results: Analyses of variance showed no between-group differences at PRE. At POST, intragroup analyses showed PRE–POST differences for the pelvic (sagittal and frontal planes) and thigh kinematics and improved sprint performance (split times) for the IG only. Specifically, IG showed (1) a lower anterior pelvic tilt during the late swing phase, (2) greater pelvic obliquity on the free-leg side during the early swing phase, (3) higher vertical position of the front-leg knee, (4) an increase in thigh angular velocity and thigh retraction velocity, (5) lower between-knees distance at initial contact, and (6) a shorter ground contact duration. The intergroup analysis revealed disparate effects (possibly to very likely) in the most relevant variables investigated. Conclusion: The 6-week multimodal training program induced clear pelvic and lower-limb kinematic changes during maximal speed sprinting. These alterations may collectively be associated with reduced risk of muscle strain and were concomitant with significant sprint performance improvement.

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Nicholas D. Myers, André G. Bateman, Adam McMahon, Isaac Prilleltensky, Seungmin Lee, Ora Prilleltensky, Karin A. Pfeiffer, and Ahnalee M. Brincks

The objective of this study was to improve the measurement of physical activity self-efficacy (PASE) in adults with obesity. To accomplish this objective, a latent variable approach was used to explore dimensionality, temporal invariance, and external validity of responses to a newly developed battery of PASE scales. Data (N baseline  = 461 and N 30 days postbaseline = 427) from the Well-Being and Physical Activity Study (ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT03194854), which deployed the Fun For Wellness intervention, were analyzed. A two-dimensional factor structure explained responses to each PASE scale at baseline. There was strong evidence for at least partial temporal measurement invariance for this two-dimensional structure in each PASE scale. There was mixed evidence that the effectiveness of the Fun For Wellness intervention exerted a direct effect on latent PASE in adults with obesity at 30 days postbaseline (i.e., external validity) of this two-dimensional structure.

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Ernest Baiget, Joshua Colomar, and Francisco Corbi

Purpose: (1) To analyze the associations between serve velocity (SV) and various single-joint upper-limb isometric force–time curve parameters, (2) to develop a prediction model based on the relationship between these variables, and (3) to determine whether these factors are capable of discriminating between tennis players with different SV performances. Method: A total of 17 high-performance tennis players performed 8 isometric tests of joints and movements included in the serve kinetic chain (wrist and elbow flexion [EF] and extension; shoulder flexion [SHF] and extension [SHE], internal [SHIR] and external rotation). Isometric force (IF), rate of force development (RFD), and impulse (IMP) at different time intervals (0–250 ms) were obtained for analysis. Results: Significant (P < .05 to P < .01) and moderate to very large correlations were found between SV and isometric force (IF), RFD and impulse (IMP) at different time intervals in all joint positions tested (except for the EF). Stepwise multiple regression analysis highlighted the importance of RFD in the SHIR from 0 to 50 milliseconds and isometric force (IF) in the SHF at 250 milliseconds on SV performance. Moreover, the discriminant analyses established SHIR RFD from 0 to 30 milliseconds as the most important factor discriminating players with different serve performances. Conclusions: Force–time parameters in upper-limb joints involved in the serve moderate to very largely influence SV. Findings suggest that the capability to develop force in short periods of time (<250 ms), especially in the shoulder joint, seems relevant to develop high SV in competition tennis players.

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Stephen P. Hebard, James E. Bissett, Emily Kroshus, Emily R. Beamon, and Aviry Reich

Sport coaches can play an influential role in athletes’ mental health help seeking through purposeful communication, destigmatization of mental health concerns, and supportive relationships. To positively engage in these behaviors, coaches require mental health knowledge (or literacy), positive attitudes about that knowledge, and self-efficacy to use that knowledge. Guided by a multidimensional health literacy framework, we conducted a content analysis of web content and scholarly literature to identify health education programming for coaches that addressed athlete mental health. A purposive sample of Olympic National Governing Bodies, collegiate athletic associations, high school sport associations, youth sport governing bodies, and the scholarly literature were analyzed. We found inconsistent programming regarding a range of mental health disorders, behaviors critical to mental health promotion, and critical components of mental health literacy. Implications and next steps for mental health literacy support for coaches are discussed.

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Kim Gammage, Jeff Caron, Alyson Crozier, Alison Ede, Christopher Hill, Sean Locke, Desi McEwan, Kathleen Mellano, Eva Pila, Matthew Stork, and Svenja Wolf