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ShiYao Wu and Li Sui

In this study, event-related potentials and neurobehavioral measurements were used to investigate the effects of discontinuous short-term fine motor imagery (MI), a paradigm of finger sequential MI training interspersed with no-MI that occurs within 1 hr, on fine finger motor execution. The event-related potentials revealed that there were significant differences in the P300 between the fine MI training and the no-MI training. There were also significant changes in the P200 between fine motor execution of familiar tasks after MI training and fine motor execution of unfamiliar tasks without MI training. Neurobehavioral data revealed that the fine MI enhanced fine motor execution. These findings may suggest that discontinuous short-term fine MI could be useful in improving fine motor skills.

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Sevgi Sevi Yeşilyaprak, Ertuğrul Yüksel, Melike Gizem Kalaycı, Nuri Karabay, and Lori A. Michener

Observable scapular dyskinesis is associated with biomechanical deficits. Preventative interventions aimed at correcting these deficits may aid in preventing the development and resolution of shoulder pain. Our purpose was to investigate the effects of kinesio taping (KT) on common biomechanical deficits associated with scapular dyskinesis and shoulder pain. Participants (n = 51) with observable scapular dyskinesis, and without shoulder pain were randomized to KT, KT-placebo, or a no-treatment control group. Measurements taken before, immediately after taping, and 3 days later included pectoralis minor muscle length, lower trapezius muscle strength, scapular upward rotation angle at 0° to 120° in scapular plane humeral elevation and acromiohumeral distance. There were no changes in scapular upward rotation, lower trapezius strength, and acromiohumeral distance immediately after taping or 3 days later compared to baseline (P > .05). The pectoralis minor increased in length in the KT group on day 3 compared to directly after taping (P = .03), but no difference between groups or interaction between time and group were determined (P > .05). Scapular dyskinesis prevalence did not change over time in any group (P > .05). In people with scapular dyskinesis free from shoulder pain, KT applied to the shoulder cannot be recommended to ameliorate the biomechanical deficits associated with shoulder pain.

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Laura C. Koch, Shane N. Sweet, Kristiann E. Man, Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Krystn Orr, Andrea Bundon, Amy E. Latimer-Cheung, and Jennifer R. Tomasone

Community-based exercise programs for persons with disabilities promote greater quantity of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) participation among their members, perhaps because of the quality experiences fostered by the program. This study aimed to explore the relationship between quality and quantity of physical activity participation in the context of community-based exercise programming and the role that gender plays in this relationship. Adults with physical disabilities (N = 91; M age = 55, 49 men) from three community-based exercise programs across Canada completed a survey asking about quality participation (Measure of Experiential Aspects of Participation [MeEAP]) and LTPA. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationship between MeEAP scores and LTPA. Quality participation was not related to LTPA, even with gender included as a moderator. Men reported higher levels of LTPA and quality participation than women, highlighting gender differences that should be considered when researching and designing exercise programs for individuals with disabilities.

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Yu Song, Bo Shen, Liansan Dong, Yanli Pang, and Jin Bo

To date, there has been little research considering both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptom severity and motor impairment simultaneously when investigating their associations with obesity. This study was designed to identify the moderating role of symptom severity in the relationship between motor competence and overweight/obesity for children with ASD. Seventy-eight children with a clinical diagnosis were recruited from a large autism rehabilitation center in Wuhan, China. Chi-square, partial correlation, and moderation regression analyses revealed that the prevalence of overweight and obesity was similar regardless of symptom severity. Balance was the only motor skill that correlated with body mass index. Furthermore, symptom severity significantly moderated the correlation. Children with low autism severity might be more likely to demonstrate the relationship between balance and body mass index than those with high autism severity. Combating obesity by enhancing motor competence should cautiously consider personal and environment factors such as individual severity of ASD.

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John P. Rech, J. Megan Irwin, Adam B. Rosen, Jessica Baldwin, and Michaela Schenkelberg

Lower levels of physical activity (PA) are often observed among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to children without ASD; however, some studies have demonstrated few to no PA differences between the two groups. The purpose of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to compare the differences in PA between children (2–18 years) with and without ASD. An exhaustive search of five online databases was completed, and 31 studies met the inclusion criteria. A pooled random-effects Hedges’s g model was used to determine differences in PA between children with and without ASD. Children with ASD were found to be significantly less physically active than children without ASD (Δ = −0.62, p < .001). Subgroup analyses revealed significant moderate to large differences in PA by intensity level, age, setting, and measurement methods. Future studies are needed to further explore the underlying mechanisms associated with lower levels of PA among children with ASD.

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Hao Meng and Stacey L. Gorniak

Objectives: The prevalence of obesity (OB) has increased in the older adult (OA) population. However, it is not quite clear whether OB exaggerates gait instability and leads to a higher risk of falls in OAs. The first goal of this study was to investigate whether OB is associated with gait alterations and gait asymmetry in OAs. The second goal of this study was to examine relationships between various OB measures with gait measures and gait symmetry measures in OAs. Methods: A total of 30 OAs were included and categorized according to their body mass index (BMI) values into groups of persons with normal weight (NW), overweight (OW), and OB. Participants were required to complete an anthropometric assessment, a body composition assessment, and overground walking tests. Results: The group with OB had shorter swing phase, longer stance phase, and shorter single support phase than the NW group. Increased body weight, BMI, visceral adipose tissue mass, and android fat had correlations with shorter swing phase, longer stance phase, and shorter single support phase. Increased body weight and BMI had significantly positive correlations with symmetry index of knee range of motion. Conclusions: OB may impair gait automation capacity in OAs. Both body weight and BMI remain good measures in terms of establishing correlations with gait stability in OAs. However, the amount of fat mass surrounding the abdomen could be vital to interpreting the alterations in the gait of OAs with obesity.

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Shameema Yousuf

Intersectionality is a structure that analyzes how a person’s social and political identities intertwine creating different ways in which privilege and discrimination manifest. It examines the individual experiences and opportunities in everyday life. The following special issue musings describe the systems that have marginalized a woman of intersectional identity despite an extensive diverse professional career across national borders. Written through a lens of a diverse professional identity and a personal intertwined identity, these reflection musings highlight the author’s lack of visibility, fatigue, and struggle for belonging in a field and wider society that she perceives to have been exclusive and unwelcoming.

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Carolina Paixão, Sara Oliveira, and Cláudia Ferreira

This study explored the differences in shame, perception of performance, the need to present a perfect body image, and disordered eating among 223 female athletes from esthetic (n = 114; M age = 14.30; SD age = 1.65; M yearsofpractice = 6.62) and nonesthetic (n = 109; M age = 14.75; SD age = 1.87; M yearsofpractice = 4.56) individual sports. Descriptive, t test, and correlational analyses were performed. Moreover, path analyses were conducted to examine the link between the variables. The two groups did not present significant differences in variables, except in perception of performance. The path model analyses explained 47% of disordered eating. Results suggested that individual characteristic of sports practice seems relevant in shame. This study suggests that female athletes from individual sports who experience inferiority tend to adopt perfectionist defensive strategies and engage in disordered eating behaviors. This study highlights the relevance of intervention and educational programs that promote more adaptative emotional regulation strategies in female athletes from individual sports.