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Francesco Campa, Matteo Levi Micheli, Matilde Pompignoli, Roberto Cannataro, Massimo Gulisano, Stefania Toselli, Gianpiero Greco, and Giuseppe Coratella

Purpose: To examine whether menstrual cycle affects body composition and bioimpedance vector analysis (BIVA) patterns, jumping and sprinting ability, and flexibility in elite soccer players. Methods: A total of 20 elite female soccer players (age: 23.8 [3.4] y, height: 1.63 [0.04] m, body mass: 61.4 [5.9] kg, and body mass index: 22.5 [2.4] kg/m2) were monitored during the early follicular and ovulatory phase across 2 consecutive menstrual cycles. Bioimpedance analysis was performed using foot-to-hand technology, and total body water and fat mass were determined by specific equations developed for athletes. Bioelectrical resistance and reactance were adjusted according to the BIVA procedures and plotted as a vector within the resistance–reactance graph. In addition, countermovement jump, 20-m sprint, and sit and reach were assessed. Results: A time effect (P < .05) was found for body mass, total body water, bioelectrical resistance and reactance, and flexibility. Specifically, body mass increased (P = .021) along with a gain in total body water (P = .001) from the ovulatory to the early follicular phase, while it decreased from the early follicular to the ovulatory phase during the second menstrual cycle. The BIVA vector shortened during the early follicular phases (P < .001). No change in jumping and sprinting capacity was observed (P > .05). Flexibility was impaired during the early follicular phases (P < .05). Conclusions: Specific bioelectrical impedance analysis and BIVA procedures are able to detect menstrual cycle–induced changes in body composition in elite soccer players. The early follicular phase resulted in fluid accumulations and BIVA vector shortening. In addition, while menstrual cycle did not affect performance, a fluctuation in flexibility was observed.

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Jacqueline Martins Patatas, Jens De Rycke, Veerle De Bosscher, and Rafael Lima Kons

The literature suggests that the current athlete development models do not reflect the multifaceted developmental pathways in Paralympic sport. This study aimed to analyze how parasport athletes progress through developmental phases of an athletic career pathway by comparing differences in their trajectories based on the nature of the impairment (acquired or congenital), age, and sex. A total of 345 para-athletes representing 15 sports completed an online survey. Results showed that the developmental phases for athletes with acquired impairment are of shorter duration, taking 4.5 years to progress from the attraction to the elite phase, while athletes with congenital impairment take 6 years. Athletes with congenital impairment start in parasport approximately 8 years younger and win medals in international competitions 7 years earlier than athletes with acquired impairment. Insights gathered in this study have the potential to enhance further thinking toward the genesis of specific models of para-athlete development.

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Colin Clancy, Nigel Gleeson, and Tom Mercer

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess neuromuscular performance capabilities over an in-season mesocycle in early-career professional soccer players and examine the relationship with training workload. Methods: Neuromuscular performance capabilities (isometric knee extensor: peak force, rate of force development, and peak twitch force) of 12 professional soccer players were assessed weekly over a 6-week period. Training and match workload were also recorded over the same period for each player (high-intensity running distance). Changes in neuromuscular performance and workload variables were analyzed. Results: There was evidence of fluctuations in neuromuscular performance capability over the mesocycle that reached statistical (P < .05) and practical (13.3% [peak-to-peak]) significance alongside interweek heterogeneity in training and match workload (∼17.5% [coefficient of variation], P < .05). Congruence among fluctuating patterns of intramesocycle training load and concomitant neuromuscular performance responses was noted over time for acute training load and acute:chronic workload ratio with peak force and rate of force development. Conclusion: Neuromuscular performance capabilities fluctuate over an in-season mesocycle and are influenced by high-intensity running workload, emphasizing the need for acute monitoring in elite soccer players.

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Mark W. Bruner, Colin McLaren, and Kevin S. Spink

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between social identity and adherence in the context of a school-based, 8-week structured group exercise program. Methods: Secondary students (N = 116; M age = 15.52 years) from 10 newly formed school-based exercise clubs reported social identity perceptions specific to their exercise group, which were used to predict attendance and intentions to return to the club in the future. Results: Controlling for sex and grade level, the results of hierarchical regression analysis revealed that exercise group social identity was significantly positively related to program attendance (ΔR 2 = .09, p < .01). A positive relationship was also found between exercise group social identity and intentions to return to the exercise club in the future, while also controlling for sex, grade level, and program attendance (ΔR 2 = .05, p < .05). Discussion/Conclusion: The findings suggest that stronger exercise group social identity in the form of ingroup ties is associated with greater attendance and intention to return to the school-based exercise club among secondary school students.

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Kristina M. Sobolewski, Larissa T. Lobo, Alexandra L. Stoddart, and Serene Kerpan

Purpose: Movement integration (MI) is a method to increase physical activity with numerous learning outcomes. However, MI implementation is low. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a job-embedded professional development intervention on teachers’ MI barriers. An implementation science approach was used. Methods: The intervention was developed and delivered through six procedures. Mixed-methods data were used to develop the intervention and assess outcomes. The intervention was delivered over 3 weeks to 12 participants. Results: Reported barriers included time constraints, lack of space, fear of losing control, and limited confidence and competence. Results indicated a significant increase in teachers’ self-reported MI use from pre- to postimplementation (Z = −2.138, p = .0165, r = .6), improved confidence (p = .048), and a strong positive correlation (τb = .627, p = .018) between confidence and competence. Conclusion: Job-embedded professional development may be an effective strategy to support teachers in overcoming barriers to MI.

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Peter A. Hastie, Wei Wang, Hairui Liu, and Yaohui He

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Play Practice instruction on the badminton content knowledge and skill of a cohort of Chinese physical education majors. Method: Seventy-two second-year students participated in semester-long courses following either the principles of Play Practice or skill-focused instruction. A control/comparison group experimental design with pre- and postmeasures was used in this study. Separate analyses of variance with repeated measures (Time × Group) were conducted to examine the effects of Play Practice and skill-focused instruction for each of four dependent variables: (a) forehand clear, (b) tactical understanding, (c) game performance, and (d) specialized content knowledge. Results: Students from both conditions made significant improvements in all four variables across the semester. However, students in the Play Practice condition showed significantly greater gains in tactical understanding, game performance, and specialized content knowledge. In particular, while 75% of students who experienced Play Practice reached the 3.0 benchmark score for adequate specialized content knowledge, only 8% of students in skill-focused instruction reached this standard.

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Maxime Mastagli, Aurélie Van Hoye, Jean-Philippe Hainaut, and Benoît Bolmont

Purpose: The present study investigated the relationship between an empowering motivational climate and pupils’ concentration and distraction in physical education, mediated by basic psychological needs satisfaction and by positive and negative affect. Method: The participants were 425 French pupils (M age = 15.36, SD age = 0.82) from 21 high schools, who filled in a questionnaire regarding the study variables. This cross-sectional study used multilevel structural equation modeling to examine the hypothesized relationships. Results: Good fit indices were found in the data from the theoretical model. An empowering motivational climate was found to be related to concentration. Competence need satisfaction was related to concentration and distraction. This association was mediated by positive and negative affect, which in turn was related to concentration and distraction. Conclusion: Teachers can improve pupils’ concentration and positive affect and reduce distraction and negative affect by supporting an empowering motivational climate and fostering competence need satisfaction.

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Tara B. Blackshear

Purpose: Black women are devalued in many aspects of American culture—physical education (PE) is no exception. Platforms to celebrate Black women’s excellence in PE are scarce. Drawing on Black feminist thought and critical race theory, the purpose of this article is to describe and explain the experiences of Black women physical educators who earned PE Teacher of the Year. Participants: Two Black women share their experiences as physical educators and PE Teachers of the Year. Methods: Qualitative narrative inquiry consisting of semistructured, virtual group interviews was employed. Results: Four core themes were identified: (a) invisibility, (b) superwoman syndrome, (c) affirming role models, and (d) culturally responsive pedagogies. Discussion/Conclusion: Elevating Black women’s voices in PE requires a deconstruction of limited exposure opportunities. Normalizing Black excellence in PE acknowledges that Black women’s intersectionalities create enormous challenges yet foster students’ success. Black women physical educators benefit students and society.

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André Filipe Paulino da Silva Bento, Luis Carrasco Páez, and Armando Manuel de Mendonça Raimundo

Purpose: This review aimed to evaluate the utility of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) programs integrated into physical education classes. Method: Searches of electronic databases from January 2008 to March 2020. Inclusion criteria: Applied to adolescents aged 10–19 years; applied in school settings; reported results on physical fitness, physical activity (PA), and motivation; at least for 4 weeks; and randomized controlled trials. Studies with adolescents with physical or intellectual limitations were excluded, as well as other interventions parallel to HIIT. Results: Fourteen studies were included. All works present significant improvements in physical fitness and PA. Improvements in body composition recorded, at most, a moderate effect size. HIIT is presented as a powerful stimulus on cardiorespiratory fitness. Improvements in PA registered, a least, a moderate effect size. Conclusions: HIIT in the school context has great potential in improving physical fitness and PA in adolescents. HIIT efficiency (about 10 min) reflects the wide applicability that these protocols can have in physical education classes and great adaptation to the facilities.

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Abraham García-Fariña, Francisco Jiménez Jiménez, and M. Teresa Anguera

Purpose: This study aims to identify socioconstructivist communication patterns used by physical education teachers and their evolution after participating in a training intervention. Method: The authors analyzed 812 units (messages containing constructivist discursive strategies) employed by two physical education teachers in two teaching modules using observational methodology. The data were analyzed by polar coordinate analysis. Results: In the pretraining phase, Teacher 1 presents two discursive patterns with questions–answers–literal incorporation of student-answers into the teachers’ communication, and another formed by praise questions. Teacher 2 generated praise-questions only. In the posttraining phase, Teacher 1 maintains one of the initial patterns and generates another consisting of questions-incorporation of students’ actions into the teacher’s communication. Teacher 2 incorporates two new patterns composed of information demands that are associated with the use of a specific frame of reference, or meta-statement. Discussion: The use of polar coordinate analysis revealed the presence of communication patterns and their evolution. Conclusion: The training intervention has resulted in changes in the communicative patterns of teachers. The custom-made instrument has allowed knowing the discursive strategies