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Cody L. Sipe, Kevin D. Ramey, Phil P. Plisky and James D. Taylor

Testing balance and fall risk with older adults of varying abilities is of increasing importance. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of the lower quarter Y-balance test (YBT-LQ) in older adults. A secondary aim was to provide estimates of reliability with this population. A total of 30 male (n = 15) and female (n = 15) subjects (66.8 ± 6.5 years) performed the YBT-LQ, 30-s chair stand test, 8-foot up and go test, timed up and go test, single-leg stance, and Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale questionnaire. The YBT-LQ was performed on two separate occasions by two investigators in random order. YBT-LQ was significantly correlated with age (p < .01), timed up and go test (p = .003), 8-foot up and go test (p < .001), 30-s chair stand test (p < .001), Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale (p = .002), and single-leg stance (p = .005) performance. The intraclass correlation coefficient(3,1) score for the reliability of the YBT-LQ was .95 (95% confidence interval [.89, .97]). The YBT-LQ appears to be a valid and reliable assessment to use with older adults.

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Kelly Cornett, Katherine Bray-Simons, Heather M. Devlin, Sunil Iyengar, Patricia Moore Shaffer and Janet E. Fulton

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Esra Uzelpasaci, Türkan Akbayrak, Serap Özgül, Ceren Orhan, Emine Baran, Gülbala Nakip, Sinan Beksac and Semra Topuz

Background: Evaluation of physical activity by condition-specific surveys provides more accurate results than generic physical activity questionnaires. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) in Turkish pregnant women. Methods: In the translation and cultural adaptation of the KPAS, the 6-phase guidelines recommended in the literature were followed. The study included a total of 151 pregnant women who were assessed using the Turkish version of KPAS, the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire, and the SenseWear Pro3 Armband. To determine the test–retest reliability, the KPAS was reapplied after 7 days. The psychometric properties of KPAS were analyzed with respect to internal consistency, test–retest reliability, and concurrent validity. Results: Cronbach α coefficient indicating the internal consistency of the Turkish KPAS was found to be .60 to .80, showing moderate reliability. The intraclass correlation coefficient for test–retest reliability was very strong (intraclass correlation coefficient: .96–.98). The total KPAS scores were found to be moderately correlated with the total Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire score and the total energy expenditure value on the SenseWear Pro3 Armband. Conclusions: This study showed that KPAS is a valid and reliable instrument for evaluating physical activity in Turkish pregnant women in different aspects.

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Matthew Katz, Bob Heere and E. Nicole Melton

The purpose of this study is to utilize egocentric network analysis to predict repurchase behaviors for college football season-ticket holders. Using a research approach grounded in network theory, we included the relational and behavioral characteristics of sport fans in a binomial regression model to predict renewal decisions among college football season-ticket holders. More specifically, we developed a model that incorporates the egocentric network variables, past behavior, and behavioral intentions to empirically test which consumer characteristics predict future behavior. Building on previous research emphasizing the role of socializing agents and social connections in sport fan consumption, through the use of egocentric network analysis, we examined the effects of social structure and social context on repurchasing decisions. Moreover, the present study is positioned within the larger discourse on season-ticket holders, as we aimed to add a network theory perspective to the existing research on season-ticket holder churn and renewal.

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Marissa A. Kobayashi, Tae Kyoung Lee, Rafael O. Leite, Blanca Noriega Esquives, Guillermo Prado, Sarah E. Messiah and Sara M. St. George

Background: Previous literature has shown a negative relationship between parental stress and youth moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). This study examined (1) the relationship between parental stress and adolescent MVPA, (2) the moderating role of family communication on this relationship, and (3) gender differences in these effects among overweight and obese Hispanic adolescents. Methods: Hispanic adolescents (N = 280, 52% female, 13.0 [0.8] y old, 44% obese, 12% severely obese) and their parents (88% female, 44.9 [6.5] y old) completed baseline measures for an efficacy trial. Adolescents self-reported MVPA in minutes per week for work, transportation, and recreation using a validated measure. Multiple regression analyses with interaction terms and multigroup methods were conducted. Results: There was a negative effect of parental stress on adolescent MVPA (β = −0.15, t = −2.018, P ≤ .05). This effect was moderated by family communication (β = 0.20, t = 2.471, P = .01), such that the association between parental stress and youth MVPA was stronger for adolescents with low levels of family communication. Furthermore, a multiple group model showed that the interaction was significant for boys (β = 0.27, t = 2.185, P = .03), but not for girls. Conclusions: Findings provide support that addressing parental stress and family communication may help facilitate MVPA among Hispanic boys, the most at-risk group for pediatric obesity.

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Morgan N. Clennin and Russell R. Pate

Background: Growing evidence suggests that the broader neighborhood socioeconomic environment is independently associated with cardiometabolic health. However, few studies have examined this relationship among younger populations. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to (1) investigate the association between neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation (SED) and cardiorespiratory fitness and (2) determine the extent to which physical activity mediates this relationship. Methods: Data from 312 youth (aged 12–15 y) were obtained from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey National Youth Fitness Survey. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using a standard submaximal treadmill test, and maximal oxygen consumption was estimated. Physical activity was self-reported time spent in moderate to vigorous activity. Neighborhood SED was measured by a composite index score at the census tract of residence. Logistic regression analyses examined relationships between neighborhood SED, physical activity, and cardiorespiratory fitness, adjusting for individual-level characteristics and the complex sampling design. Results: Neighborhood SED was not significantly associated with cardiorespiratory fitness or physical activity among youth in the study sample. Conclusions: While not significant, cardiorespiratory fitness levels were observed to decrease as neighborhood SED increased. Future research is needed to better understand this relationship and to identify underlying mechanisms beyond fitness or physical activity that may drive the relationship between neighborhood SED and health.

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Leanna M. Ross, Jacob L. Barber, Alexander C. McLain, R. Glenn Weaver, Xuemei Sui, Steven N. Blair and Mark A. Sarzynski

Background: This study examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and ideal cardiovascular health (CVH). Methods: CRF and the 7 CVH components were measured in 11,590 (8865 males; 2725 females) adults at baseline and in 2532 (2160 males; 372 females) adults with at least one follow-up examination from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. Ideal CVH score was calculated as a composite of 7 measures, each scored 0 to 2. CVH groups were based on participant point score: ≤7 (poor), 8 to 11 (intermediate), and 12 to 14 (ideal). Analyses included general linear, logistic regression, and linear mixed models. Results: At baseline, participants in the high CRF category had 21% and 45% higher mean CVH scores than those in the moderate and poor CRF categories (P < .001). The adjusted odds (95% confidence interval) of being in the poor CVH group at baseline were 4.9 (4.4–5.4) and 16.9 (14.3–19.9) times greater for individuals with moderate and low CRF, respectively, compared with those with high CRF (P < .001). Longitudinal analysis found that for every 1-minute increase in treadmill time, CVH score increased by 0.23 units (P < .001) independent of age, sex, exam number, and exam year. Conclusions: Higher CRF is associated with better CVH profiles, and improving CRF over time is independently associated with greater improvements in CVH.

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Steven Salaga, Scott Tainsky and Michael Mondello

The authors demonstrate that betting market outcomes are a statistically significant and economically relevant driver of local market television viewership in the National Basketball Association. Ratings are higher when the local market team covers the point spread and when point spread outcome uncertainty is increased. They further illustrate that point spread market outcomes have a larger relative impact on viewership in less-popular games and when the local market team is expected to perform poorly. This suggests wagering market access serves as insurance to the league and its franchises against reduced viewership in games that are less appealing to consumers. The results assess the degree to which wagering interest has driven past revenues as well as how the legalization of sports wagering may influence future revenues.

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Athanasios Kolovelonis and Marios Goudas

Three experiments examined students’ calibration in physical education in relation to task characteristics. Participants in the 3 experiments were 388 students. Calibration accuracy and bias were calculated based on students’ predicted and actual performance in tests including variations of a sport task (basketball shooting) and tasks from different sports (basketball and soccer). An overconfidence effect was found in all experiments, and evidence regarding the hard–easy effect emerged. High compared with low performers were more accurate, and some variations with respect to gender also emerged. The magnitude of calibration error was similar across tasks, whereas approximately half of the students were consistent in the direction of calibration (most of them were overestimators). Results are discussed with reference to theoretical and empirical evidence associated with performance calibration and self-regulated learning in physical education. Methodological issues, practical implications, and future directions are also discussed.