Johannes Raabe, E. Earlynn Lauer, and Matthew P. Bejar
Mental toughness (MT) enables individuals to thrive in demanding situations; however, current conceptualizations of MT are primarily based on research with elite adult athletes. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to explore youth sport coaches’ perceptions of mentally tough adolescent athletes with whom they have worked. Phenomenological interviews were conducted with 14 youth sport coaches (nine men and five women). Using a hermeneutic process, a thematic structure comprising five themes was developed: (a) Youth athletes demonstrate their MT by overcoming various obstacles, (b) mentally tough youth athletes are highly self-determined with respect to their sport participation, (c) mentally tough youth athletes control their emotions in competition, (d) mentally tough youth athletes focus on aspects that facilitate their performance, and (e) mentally tough youth athletes are good teammates. These findings not only complement existing conceptualizations of MT but also highlight important distinctions in the manifestation of the construct in early to middle adolescents.
Zoë A. Poucher, Katherine A. Tamminen, and Christopher R.D. Wagstaff
Sport organizations have been noted as pivotal to the success or failure of athletes, and sport environments can impact the well-being and development of athletes. In this study, the authors explored stakeholders’ perceptions of how high-performance sport organizations support athlete development. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 18 stakeholders from the United Kingdom’s high-performance sport system and transcripts were analyzed using a semantic thematic analysis. Participants emphasized the importance of performance lifestyle advisors, sport psychologists, and financial assistance for promoting athlete development. Several stakeholders observed that despite the extensive support available to athletes, many do not engage with available support, and the prevalence of a performance narrative has led to an environment that discourages holistic development. It follows that sport organizations could develop alternative strategies for promoting athletes’ access to and engagement with available supports, while funding agencies might broaden existing funding criteria to include well-being or athlete development targets.
Sinan Yildirim and Ziya Koruç
The current study focuses on the effect of transformational leadership on athletes’ performance in the mediation of psychological need satisfaction, burnout, competition anxiety, life satisfaction, and positive–negative affect. The sample consisted of 391 soccer players aged between 16 and 20 years. Six scales were used in this study: Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, Needs Satisfaction Scale, Athlete Burnout Measure, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Positive and Negative Affect Scale, and Sport Competition Anxiety Test. The method of Vallerand was preferred to measure performance, and structural equation modeling was employed to analyze data. The model data fit was also verified. It was found that the transformational leadership behaviors of coaches signally influence athletes’ performance either directly or indirectly. From another perspective, increasing the psychological health or well-being of athletes has important effects on sport performance.
Andrew P. Friesen
There has been an implied direct connection between the scholarly literature and applied practice. However, the sport and exercise psychology community is lacking an empirical account of what practitioners believe to have been the most impactful scholarly writings to their applied practice. The purpose of this study was to survey applied practitioners of their perceived most impactful scholarly writings to their professional practice. Surveys were returned from 532 participants solicited from the Association for Applied Sport Psychology membership, who were asked to identify their perceived most impactful book and journal article to their practice. Frequency statistics were calculated and presented for topic, type, title, author(s), year published, and journal. A total of 143 different books and 188 different articles across 84 different journals were reported. Implications for applied practice, teaching sport and exercise psychology, and research are presented.
Johannes Raabe, Elmer Castillo, and Johannes Carl
Although applied sport psychology services have traditionally been provided in athletic settings, there has been a trend toward a more general application across different performance domains and, in particular, with tactical populations (i.e., military, law enforcement, and firefighters). The purpose of the current study was to systematically review the existing research on mental qualities and techniques in tactical populations. A database search revealed 7,220 potentially relevant articles, which were screened by two independent reviewers based on predefined inclusion criteria. This systematic screening process helped to identify 49 articles for further analysis. The findings highlight the benefits of developing mental qualities and techniques among tactical populations, as they can help to nurture a range of positive cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes. Yet, this review also indicates gaps and limitations that need to be addressed in future research to gain a better understanding of the antecedents, mediators, and consequences of these psychological constructs.
Adson Alves da Silva, Gabriel Lucas Morais Freire, José Fernando Vila Nova de Moraes, Leonardo de Souza Fortes, Rodrigo Gustavo da Silva Carvalho, and José Roberto Andrade do Nascimento Junior
This study investigated the association of coping strategies burnout symptoms in 228 Under-20 Brazilian soccer players in a career transition phase and compared these variables with the occurrence of injuries and professionalization. The instruments used in the study were the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire and the Athletic Coping Strategies Inventory-28. Data analysis was conducted through generalized estimation equations, Pearson correlation, and multiple linear regression (p < .05). The results showed that coping was associated with physical and emotional exhaustion in both professional and nonprofessional players, and with a reduced sense of accomplishment only in young nonprofessional athletes who were in the career transition phase. It is concluded that young elite athletes who are in the transition phase of their career but have not signed a professional contract, use limited coping strategies and seem more exposed to stress (compared with those who have signed a contract), and are consequently more vulnerable to burnout symptoms.
Keita Kinoshita, Eric MacIntosh, and Shintaro Sato
Basic psychological needs (BPN) are a construct that helps clarify the psychological mechanism to reach desirable outcomes for youth athletes. When BPN are undermined, people should be less likely to thrive. As mental toughness (MT) can reduce the negative effects of stressors, MT may buffer the negative effects of maladaptive motivation. This study investigated the mediating role of thriving on the relationships between BPN thwarting and important outcomes for youth athletes’ positive functioning. It also examined the buffering effects of MT. One hundred eighty-eight Canadian youth athletes (M age = 15.51) answered an online survey. The results demonstrated that thriving was a significant mediator, and the indirect relationships were moderated by MT. The indirect associations were nonsignificant for youth with high MT. The findings demonstrated that MT might decrease the negative impacts of BPN thwarting on thriving and important outcomes for young athletes.